Brief description of the disease
Acute glomerulonephritis - an infectious-allergic disease of the kidneys, has a recurring character and develops within 2-3 weeks after any infectious disease, human suffering (usually after streptococcal etiology). Glomerulonephritis in children and adults affects kidney tissue, leading to a sharp decrease in their health and development of renal failure. At the moment, acute glomerulonephritis is considered one of the most common kidney disease. It can develop at any age, but most of the sick person up to 40 years.
Acute glomerulonephritis in children and adults - symptoms
- weakness, lethargy, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache;
- enlarged liver, hypertension;
- swelling of the extremities;
- various forms of bladder syndrome (oliurgiya, hematuria, proteinuria);
- Pain in the lower back and abdomen;
- syndrome of renal insufficiency.
The forms of glomerulonephritis
Acute glomerulonephritis often manifests itself in the cyclic or latent form. The first starts quite rapidly: the person quickly appear edema, headache, shortness of breath, discomfort in the lumbar region, decreases the amount of urine and increased blood pressure. The disease occurs cyclically - after acute attacks of sickness should be a short-term improvement in the patient, which in no way indicates the complete disappearance of symptoms. If the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis conducted correctly and prescribe adequate treatment the patient, the swelling subside quickly, and blood pressure returns to normal. However, even after complete recovery in humans may be a slight proteinuria.
The latent form is less common cyclical, but more often spills over into chronic glomerulonephritis. The initial stages of the disease characterized by the gradual development of symptoms without any distinct attacks ailments. Diagnosis of latent glomerulonephritis is a certain difficulty, since the disease can not be determined by their appearance, and therefore it is necessary to conduct systematic analyzes of urine.
Acute glomerulonephritis in children - Diagnosis of the disease
Glomerulonephritis in urine are erythrocytes and protein (1 to 15 g / l). The disease may be accompanied by a small proteinuria. Mandatory sign of the disease is hematuria, but the early stages of the most characteristic symptom of infection is oliurgiya (500-600 ml. Of urine per day). When a blood test, doctors detected a decrease in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin, determined by a slight increase in ESR. For an accurate diagnosis the patient is carried out sample Rehberg appoint Ultrasonography, excretory urography and radioisotope renography.
Treatment of acute glomerulonephritis
The patient was admitted to the hospital, prescribe mandatory bed rest and a strict diet. It is necessary to drastically reduce the amount of salt in the diet, as this measure may in itself lead to an increased release of water and the subsequent elimination of edema and hypertensive syndromes. When kidney disease, special attention should be paid to the quality of water consumed. For quality drinking water purification is best to buy a reverse osmosis.
Subsequently diet of the patient includes oranges, potatoes, squash and watermelon. These vegetables and fruits provide human food grade sodium-free. The amount of fluids you drink should be reduced to 600 - 1000 ml. per day. You can eat protein foods, it is best to give preference to cottage cheese and egg whites. Allowed fat (less than 70-80 grams per day). In addition, the diet of patients received vitamins.
If acute glomerulonephritis associated with an existing infection, the patient is prescribed antimicrobial therapy. At initial stages it is desirable to reject receiving steroid hormones (dexamethasone, prednisone), because in this period is very pronounced general symptoms. Prolonged acute glomerulonephritis in children and adults, as well as the latent form of the disease require corticosteroid therapy, which has a complex effect, reducing the effects of edema and urinary syndromes. Abandon corticosteroids should be at a moderate hypertension, because it is not an indication for intensive antibiotic therapy.
Due to the fact that acute glomerulonephritis have pronounced symptoms, doctors can quickly make an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Forecasts are generally favorable, except where serious complications due to individual characteristics of the patient.