Brief description of the disease
For the first time spoke about actinomycosis in 1877, when German scientist Bollinger, who studied purulent lesions genitals of women highlighted the new nosological form of infection. Nowadays it is known that actinomycosis caused by various kinds of aerobic or anaerobic ray fungi. By the nature of the activities they are close to the bacteria growing in the soil, water, plants, saprofitiruyut mucous membranes of animals and humans. As a rule, the body of living creatures aktinomikoz gets airborne or through fate injured skin and mucous membranes. In favorable conditions, actinomycosis - disease spreads rapidly through the body, acquires the ability to limfogematogennomu metastatic development.
The etiology of the disease is not well understood actinomycosis. Researchers believe that actinomycosis maxillo - facial area appears under the influence of the urinary, biliary and salivary calculi, which are carriers of infection. In most cases, actinomycosis sick people worn by the immune system unable to resist lowering of the redox potential of tissues. Men get sick more often than women, partly because of the prevalence of harmful habits among a strong half of mankind. Depending on how actinomycosis hit the body, identified two forms of the disease - primary and secondary. First developed as a result of the direct introduction of the fungus in the tissue. Secondary aktinomikoz maxillofacial caused by metastatic spread infekta.
Symptoms of actinomycosis
Doctors are three forms of the disease actinomycosis:
- gummuozno-nodosum - most often affects school-age children, appears gummy infiltrates purplish-red or brown. In places the defeat of actinomycosis softens the skin, and shows the fistulas and ulcers, which are periodically released from the pus with dense inclusions (this is a colony of actinomycetes);
- papulose - pustular - sores less deep, but prone to acne-like pustules and sinus tracts. As the infection on the skin appear purulent crust;
- Ulcerative actinomycosis - the depth of the defects varies significantly as the severity of the infiltration units. Sores lead to scarring and scar tissue atrophy.
Although patients often observed aktinomikoz maxillofacial region, the infection can develop anywhere on the skin. This process is accompanied by a variety of symptoms, so we select only the main, the most typical signs of infection:
- rise in body temperature, the occurrence of pain;
- purulent discharge, no peculiar smell;
- menstrual dysfunction in the case of women;
- if the genital form of the disease in patients identified dense infiltrates fistulous passages, festering.
Diagnosis of actinomycosis
The incubation period of the infection lasts from several weeks to 2-3 years, so the diagnosis of actinomycosis Treatment depends entirely on how the disease was detected in a timely manner. During diagnostics are used: skin and allergy tests, differential diagnosis, events immunodiagnostics.
Actinomycosis - disease treatment
Patients in the treatment of actinomycosis appointed broad-spectrum antibiotics, iodine, vitamins, aktinolizat. The latter is a tool derived from cultures of pathogenic anaerobic actinomycetes. It is injected into the body by intramuscular injection. The standard dosage - 1-4 ml of the preparation 2 times per week. The course of treatment lasts about actinomycosis 1, 5 months. This doctor should closely monitor the general, local and focal reaction of the body to prevent complications.
A total of Lumpy patients received 2-3 courses of treatment with a break in between 1-2 months. In the event that the patient develops launched heavy actinomycosis, doctors decide to surgical removal of the source of infection. For the fastest possible rehabilitation human plasma are administered, blood transfusion and use autohemotherapy. Much attention is paid to the factors that cause a decrease in immunity.
With adequate approach and timely diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of actinomycosis is quite favorable. However, do not forget about the prevention of the disease, which is the dental health, elementary hygiene, and prevention of injuries of the skin or mucous membranes of the body.