Acidosis - the state of the body, characterized by the disturbance of acid-base balance of the body with an offset
in the direction of increasing acidity and reducing the pH of its environment. The primary cause of the state of oxidation products is an accumulation of organic acids which are normally rapidly cleared from the body. Increasing the concentration of the oxidation products of organic acids in the acidosis can be caused by external factors (inhalation of air with a high concentration of carbon dioxide), as well as internal factors, it is a violation of the functioning of systems, resulting in impaired metabolism products and accumulation of metabolites, organic acids. Heavy state of acidosis when provoked shock, coma and death of the patient.
Acidosis of any origin can lead to a critical state of the body:
- Increased blood clotting;
- Critical fluctuations in blood pressure;
- Myocardial infarction, myocardial parenchymal organs;
- The decrease in circulating blood;
- Peripheral thrombosis;
- Impaired function of the brain;
On the mechanism of acidosis are the following types of violations:
- Non-respiratory acidosis;
- Respiratory acidosis (inhalation of air with a high concentration of carbon dioxide);
- Mixed acidosis (a condition caused by different types of acidosis).
Non-respiratory acidosis, in turn, is subject to the following classification:
- Excretory acidosis - a condition that develops when a violation of the removal of acids from the body (renal failure);
- Metabolic acidosis - the most complex condition characterized by the accumulation of endogenous acids in body tissues;
- Exogenous acidosis - a condition of increasing the concentration of acids caused by intake of a large number of substances that can be transformed in the process of metabolism in acid.
The level of pH value acidosis is classified as:
When the pH reaches the minimum limit (7, 24) and maximum (7, 45) of values (normal pH = 7, 25 - 7, 44) is denatured proteins, cell destruction, decreased function of enzymes, which can lead to death of the organism.
Acidosis: Causes of the disease
Acidosis is not a disease. This condition of the body, which is caused by the influence of certain factors. If acidosis causes of this condition can become the following factors:
- Starvation diet, alcohol, smoking;
- Poisoning, loss of appetite, and other dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Condition of the body, in which disturbed metabolism (diabetes, circulatory failure, febrile illness);
- Malignant neoplasms;
- Renal insufficiency;
- Poisoning substances, the metabolism in the body which leads to the formation of excess acid;
- Hypoglycemia (decreased blood glucose);
- Oxygen starvation (with shock, anemia, heart failure);
- The loss of sodium by the kidneys;
- The use of a certain number of drugs (salicylates, calcium chloride, and others.);
- Respiratory failure.
In some cases, it causes acidosis, clearly indicating the state of development, no.
Acidosis: symptoms, clinical picture
the symptoms are difficult to differentiate the symptoms of other diseases. In milder forms of acidosis symptoms associated with a shift of acid-base balance of the body. The main symptoms of acidosis are at:
- Short-term nausea, vomiting;
- Palpitation, shortness of breath;
- Cardiac arrhythmias;
- High blood pressure;
- The disorder of the central nervous system (drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, loss of consciousness, confusion);
- A state of shock;
It should be noted that in mild forms of acidosis symptoms can not appear at all.
For accurate diagnosis of acidosis, the following research methods:
- Blood gas analysis (for analysis of arterial blood is extracted from the radial artery at the wrist, the analysis of venous blood not accurately determine the level of pH);
- Analysis of the pH in the urine;
- Analysis of arterial blood for serum electrolytes.
Blood on the basic parameters of exchange (gas composition and the level of serum electrolytes) indicate not only the presence of acidosis, but also determine the type of acidosis (respiratory, metabolic). To determine the cause of acidosis may require other tests.
Based on the fact that this condition is caused by impaired functioning of the body systems, acidosis when treatment is reduced to the basic treatment of the disease, pathological condition or dysfunction, provoked a shift of acid-base balance of the body.
To correct metabolic acidosis treatment involves intravenous fluids and treatment of the underlying disease that caused the condition.
In severe forms of acidosis treatment involves the appointment of preparations containing sodium bicarbonate (baking, infusion solutions) to raise the pH to 7, and 2 above. Sodium bicarbonate is added to solutions of glucose or sodium chloride, depending on the disorders in blood volume due acidosis.
For relief of distinct ailments with acidosis symptomatic treatment is given. With the development of acidosis as a result of poisoning treatment involves removal of toxic substances from the body, in cases of severe poisoning is used dialysis.