Femoral hernia - tumor formation, which is formed by the output of the gland and the intestinal loops outside the abdominal cavity through the femoral ring. Manifested by the presence of femoral hernia, tumor pain.
Among the total number of abdominal hernias femoral it occurs in about 5-8% of cases. More likely to develop the femoral hernia are women. Men femoral hernia develops four times less. This is due to the anatomical features of the body. It happens that the disease develops in young infants due to physiological weakness of the abdominal wall tissue.
The most common reasons for the formation of the femoral hernia
The main cause of the femoral hernia is a weakening of the abdominal wall. The weakening of the abdominal wall, in turn, often result in the following factors: abdominal injuries, post-operative scarring, hip dislocation, disturbance of the innervation of the abdominal wall. Development femoral hernia in men contribute to excessive exercise and development of femoral hernias in women - multiple pregnancies and prolonged labor.
By the appearance of the disease often leads situations of constant increase intra-abdominal pressure: difficulty urinating, physical effort, constant coughing, constipation, etc.. Moreover, the emergence of a hernia can develop even after a single heavy lifting, or develop on the background of the prolonged cough (for example, chronic bronchitis).
Types of femoral hernias
Femoral hernias by location divided into bilateral and unilateral. In accordance with the clinic nevpravimye isolated, disadvantaged and vpravimye femoral hernia.
Irreducible hernia or reduce a not completely, or not at all amenable to reposition the abdominal cavity. Strangulated femoral hernia characterized by compression of the contents of the hernia hernial ring, which is very dangerous, because there is a possibility of acute intestinal obstruction, peritonitis, bowel gangrene or necrosis.
The process of forming the femoral hernia has three stages:
- Starting when the hernial sac is located outside the inner ring of the femoral. At this stage the disease is difficult to diagnose, but it can be expressed in the wall infringement.
- Incomplete stage, when the tumor is within the femoral canal, within the boundaries of the front fascia.
- Full stage, which is characterized by protrusion of the femoral hernia in the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh. In the full stage femoral hernia in women may stick out sexual lip. Men femoral hernia may bulge into the scrotum.
Symptoms of femoral hernia
On the first and second stages of the disease is characterized by herniation inguinal-femoral fold. A tumor generally has a small size, rounded shape and a smooth surface. It is particularly noticeable upright or voltage. After reposition disappears with the characteristic humming sound.
In the presence of a hernial bowel loops is determined tympanitis. Sometimes the presence of femoral hernia can occur swelling of the lower limbs caused by compression of the femoral vein and is accompanied by numbness and a feeling of "pins and needles on the body." If the hernial bag gets bladder disorder can develop dizuricheskie.
Complications include femoral hernia its inflammation. Inflammation may be purulent or serous. Primarily inflammation occurs content hernia (intestine, appendix, the uterus and appendages, etc.). Sometimes inflammation can move to the hernial sac to the skin. Inflamed hernia causes the sensation of pain, flushing of the skin, increased body temperature. In some cases, may develop peritonitis.
Strangulated femoral hernia is fraught with the development of the innervation of organs in a hernia, or acute circulatory disorders. These symptoms are accompanied by an increase in the size of the hernia and its seal. There are severe abdominal pain, gas, and develops a delay chair. This condition can lead to intestinal obstruction and necrosis, manifested in nausea, cramping pains, hiccups, repeated vomiting.
How to diagnose femoral hernia?
In the initial stages of the disease is difficult to diagnose because there are no clearly defined symptoms. Usually diagnosed femoral hernia after symptoms typical symptoms (typical protrusion in the femoral triangle, a symptom cough shock, vpravlyaemost in a horizontal position, etc.).
On palpation hernia formation can determine the nature of its contents, the degree vpravlyaemosti hernia hernia and clarify the dimensions of the channel. During diagnostic femoral hernia should be differentiated from the wandering abscess, hernia, varicose veins, lipomas, thrombophlebitis, cancer metastasis, etc.
To determine the contents of the hernia sac helps ultrasound and barium enema.
Treatment of femoral hernias
Conservative treatment of femoral hernia is impossible, so the presence of the disease is shown only surgery. The most common method of surgery - hernia repair (herniorrhaphy with plastic defect).
The operation for the treatment of femoral hernia involves opening the bag with the contents of the hernia and his thorough examination and, if necessary, - removal of the gland, and reduction of hernia contents into the abdominal cavity. Followed by ligation, excision of the hernia sac and hernia plastic channel. Hernioplasty conducted both with synthetic materials and patient's own tissue.
When strangulated femoral hernia often perform median laparotomy with removal of non-viable bowel area.
In most cases, the prognosis for the treatment of femoral hernia favorable, patients can return to the familiar life.