Ankylosis - a disease in which develops complete immobility of the joint. It arises as a result of occurring in the pathologic joint changes. As a rule, the impetus for the development of the disease becomes a trauma, arthritis or osteoarthritis.
During ankilozirovaniya affected joint, he first became seriously moving, and eventually loses all mobility. Ankylosis of the joints are bone with the growth of bone tissue and fibrous connective with the growth of fibrous tissue.
Signs of joint ankylosis
Ankylosis and contractures have similar symptoms. The most important symptom of ankylosis is the limited mobility. Other symptoms depend mainly on the position in which the fixation has occurred. For example, if ankylosis of the knee occurs when the foot is in a state of half-bent at an angle, then the patient will not be able to walk. If the foot is locked in the straightened condition, the patient will be able to completely free and walk and work.
When fibrous ankylosis of the joint most important symptom is pain in the commission of its oscillation. When bone ankylosis patient usually does not experience pain.
The causes of ankylosis
There are several causes of ankylosis and contractures. The main reasons are heavy intraarticular fractures that occur as a result of violations of the articular surfaces, inflammatory changes of the joints (arthrosis and arthritis), open joint injury in which there is a long festering process leading to the degeneration of the cartilage covering the joint surfaces and growth of connective fibrous tissue or bone.
Also, the appearance of ankylosis of the joint often leads to a long stay in the cast.
Diagnosis of ankylosis
If you suspect a contracture ankylosis and the patient should consult a surgeon or traumatologist, who will review the history of the disease, patients need to ask questions and determine the degree of mobility of the affected joint. In order to clarify the diagnosis of the patient sent for X-rays of the joint, as well as computed tomography or magnetic resonance therapy.
Treatment of ankylosis
Depending on the extent of joint ankylosis treatment can be conservative or surgical. When the disease is of great importance as far as possible early diagnosis and treatment.
Conservative treatment of ankylosis aimed at restoring joint mobility, relieve pain at movement and improving muscle tone. To this end a mandatory patient is prescribed physiotherapy aimed at rhythmic tension sick leg or arm in a cast, manual therapy, muscle massage. Medication includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, hormones and leading into the joint cavity.
It is widely used to treat contractures and ankylosis physiotherapy. Electrophoresis, UHF, CMT effectively help remove the inflammation, swelling, relieve pain in the joints and to restore his mobility.
Fibrous ankylosis treated specially developed oscillation (preliminary anesthesia). When fibrous ankylosis predominantly operative treatment. It extends the application of arthroplasty, in which the articular ends of the bones are separated and formed a new joint surface. Between the new joint surfaces placed special gaskets plastic fabric. An uncomfortable position when the limb ankylosis eliminated by straightening it (osteotomy). In severe cases, may conduct a complete joint replacement (arthroplasty).
Prevention of ankylosis
To avoid the development of this disease, it is necessary with special attention to the painful joints. It is advisable to start as soon as possible its comprehensive treatment and treatment of intra-articular fractures with the use of internal and external drug therapy and therapeutic exercises aimed at the development of muscles and the patient's joint.
To prevent the emergence and development of osteoarthritis in adjacent joints in ankylosis recommends regular physical training, physical therapy, therapeutic massage and spa treatment.
To avoid unfavorable functional ankylosis recommended correct immobilization limbs damaged by trauma.