Celiac disease - a congenital disease in which the marked intolerance to certain proteins found in cereals. You can often hear the misconception that celiac disease is a new disease that appeared only in the last decade. This is not so, because celiac disease has been described for the first time about a thousand years ago, and at the same time got its name «Morbus coeliacus». In recent years, due to improved methods of diagnosis only to find out that the prevalence of celiac disease is much broader than previously thought, and many hidden and atypical forms of the disease previously mistaken for other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
Causes of celiac disease
The immediate cause of celiac disease is atrophic inflammation of the villi of the small intestine that occurs under the influence of certain protein fractions that make up the grains and their products. That is the substance in wheat gluten (also known as gliadin), oats - avenin, barley - hordein, in the Rye - sekalinin. Since wheat and wheat flour products distributed most, celiac disease is also called celiac disease.
The intolerance to gluten is innate. The mechanism of disease has not yet been studied, put forward several theories of origin, but none of them does not give exhaustive explanations. The most convincing is by far the theory of hereditary disorders of immunity in celiac disease, as it turned out that the survey of parents of children with celiac disease, those were in many cases found the hidden forms of the disease.
Symptoms of celiac disease
Symptoms of celiac disease appear in early childhood, when administered in the diet of foods containing gluten
. Most often it is semolina and oat porridge or infant formula, which include cereals glyutensoderzhaschie
. Celiac disease manifests itself in children first as intestinal disorder
. The chair becomes rapid, mushy, abundant, often foamy
. The child loses weight, while increasing his stomach, swelling appear
. If the disease is not detected at this stage and curative measures are not taken, further disturbed assimilation of calcium, which leads to characteristic deformities of rickets
. Thus, tselikaiya children often misleading parents and pediatricians, since the symptoms of celiac disease are similar to symptoms of a number of other diseases
. However, it is important to detect the disease in its early stages, because symptoms of celiac disease in the future can take a global character, including appearing as stunted physical and mental development
Coeliac disease in adults, if not detected early childhood usually has an implicit (latent) character. The main symptoms of celiac disease in this case are muscle weakness, fatigue, long-term pain in the muscles and bones, anemia of unknown origin. The disorder of the intestine of celiac disease in adults are not the main symptom, they may not be, and can even be a tendency to constipation. However, in some patients taking frequent indigestion and sometimes even regular - frequent loose stools several times a day containing foam and pieces of undigested food. Celiac disease can occur in adults is hidden, sharpening under the influence of provoking factors: stress, pregnancy, infectious diseases, surgery.
Diagnosis of celiac disease
Because the symptoms of celiac disease are similar to other disorders of the digestive system, it is important that in the event of suspicious gastroenterological diseases was carried out a thorough diagnosis. It is of paramount importance, since it is not difficult to adjust celiac disease, but in severe cases the disease can lead to severe complications set.
If you suspect celiac disease in children spend immunological blood tests (serodiagnosis) on the content of specific antibodies. This analysis is called GSE (Gluten-sensitive enteropathy) - gluten enteropathy tests at. Spend fecal fat and carbohydrates. In complex cases, a biopsy of the small intestine mucosa.
Celiac disease in adults, due to the implicitness of symptoms, requires a full gastrointestinal survey with an immunological study of blood and a biopsy of the small intestine.
One of the most reliable methods of diagnosis is to compare the symptoms of celiac disease before and after gluten-free diet. If the patient's condition improved dramatically with the exclusion from the diet glyutensoderzhaschih products once used gluten load. Worse when gluten load and improvement in the gluten-free diet is the main diagnostic feature of celiac disease.
Treatment for celiac disease. Diet
Diet for celiac disease is the main method of therapy. Without dieting celiac disease is not treated, regardless of the medication. The main principle of the diet in celiac disease - the complete exclusion of foods containing gluten, even in small quantities.
Basic rules of gluten (gluten-free) diet for celiac disease include:
- Excluding food containing gluten: dishes of wheat, oats, barley, rye and their derivatives in any form;
- Excluded products that cause fermentation processes;
- Excluded products containing a large number of allergens;
- Allowed rice, maize, beans, potatoes, buckwheat permissible in small quantities;
- Allowed meat, eggs, milk and milk products, fruits and vegetables;
- During an exacerbation of the disease, the principle of mechanical and chemical schazheniya, steamed, braised or steamed food is taken in a shabby.
In young children, the conventional infant formula are replaced by special, based on a soy or casein hydrolyzate. Celiac disease in children, the application of a gluten-free diet regress, children quickly catch up with their peers in the psychomotor skills, and subsequently are no different from them. After the start of a strict diet therapy, the symptoms of celiac disease are held for 3-6 months - so much time must be atrophied villae of the small intestine to recover. Gluten-free diet must be strictly adhered to and for life.
Complications of celiac disease
The disease should be treated at any age, whether celiac disease in children and adults with celiac disease, as when entering symptoms of celiac gluten grow, gradually leading to severe disorders of all body systems.
The most common complications are the following:
- Malignant tumors of the intestines;
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- Ulcers jejunum and ileum;
- Infertility as female and male;
- Beriberi, and as a result, a sharp decline in immunity;
- Reducing the size of the spleen (gipospleniya), leading to violations of its functions;
- Hypotension (low blood pressure), resulting in a constant weakness, drowsiness, lack of vitality.