Cushing's syndrome in medicine called disease, which entails a large number of symptoms resulting from increasing the concentration of glucocorticoid hormones in the human body.
The causes of Cushing's syndrome
- Inflammatory processes in the brain (in particular, due to a pituitary tumor).
- In some cases, a post-partum women.
- Tumors of the adrenal glands.
- Tumors of the pancreas, bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, which inevitably entails the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome.
During the analyzed disease diagnosis must be remembered that the Cushing's syndrome brings together a large number of disease states (cancer of the adrenal gland, Cushing's disease, an increase of ACTH and others.). In addition, patients with Cushing's syndrome should undergo additional inspection and refuse to accept products that contain steroids (so long taking prednisone or similar medicines can cause the development of the disease under study).
After determining the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome is impossible to tell at a glance what kind of disease is typical for a particular patient cancer of the adrenal gland or nevertheless Cushing's disease. Quite often in men suffering from cancer of the adrenal glands, the body begins to dominate the female hormone, while women, on the contrary, there are signs for men. No need to forget about the fact that in medicine there is a pseudo-Cushing's syndrome, occurring in patients who become depressed or long time drinkers. As a result of these diseases the normal functioning of the adrenal gland stops and they begin to produce in excess glucocorticoid hormones, which gives rise to the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome.
There is Cushing's syndrome in children and can develop at any age. However, most often it occurs in people whose age ranges from 20-40 years. It is noted that women, this disease occurs 10 times more frequently than men.
Symptoms of Cushing's syndrome
Among the most common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome can be identified obesity torso, neck and face. In patients with this disease a person acquires a circular shape, arms and legs are very thin and thin, the skin is too dry, and in some places becomes red-blue color (on the face and in the chest). Often the fingertips, lips and nose are blue (developing acrocyanosis). The skin becomes thinner through it clearly looked through a vein (usually occurs in the limbs and chest), stretch marks can be clearly seen (on the abdomen, hips, legs and arms). In areas of friction skin often becomes a darker shade. The women on the face and extremities there is an excessive body hair.
In addition, increased blood pressure continuously. Due to a lack of calcium in the body there are changes of the skeleton (in severe forms of the disease are found fractures of the spine and ribs). Violated the metabolic processes in the body, which leads to the development of diabetes, which is almost never curable. Patients with this disease may experience frequent depression or overexcited state.
Symptoms of Cushing's syndrome is also a reduction in the concentration of potassium in the blood, whereas hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and cholesterol significantly increased.
Cushing's syndrome is the development of three forms: light, medium and heavy. The disease can develop for a year or six months (very fast), and can gain its momentum for 3-10 years.
Diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome
- Determined the amount of cortisol in the blood and urine. For a blood test to determine the amount of ACTH in it (raising the night it is the most truthful indicator in this analysis).
- With the help of special studies establish the source of the increased production of hormones (adrenal glands or the pituitary gland). Held computed tomography of the skull, the result is determined by the pituitary adenoma, as well as an increase in the adrenal glands. Thanks tomography or scintigraphy diagnose adrenal tumors.
- To avoid possible tumor of the adrenal cortex development, conduct special tests with the use of dexamethasone, ACTH or metapyron.
Treatment of Cushing's syndrome
- If the symptoms of Cushing's is a pathological condition of the pituitary gland, the only true solution is the complete removal of the pituitary gland.
- In the event that the patient has adrenal adenoma, cure Cushing's syndrome is the removal of adenomas, including laparoscopic removal of the adrenal gland - laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In severe form of the disease surgically removed two adrenal, which entails constant adrenal insufficiency. Maintain a normal condition of the patient can only appropriate therapy.
- Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is used not only for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome, as well as for the elimination of endocrine diseases, resulting from the poor performance of the pituitary or adrenal glands, which can lead to the development of the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. Today, such an operation is widespread throughout the world. If you can not hold relative pituitary surgery, the laparoscopic hold bilateral adrenalectomy.
- Treatment of Cushing's syndrome in children and adults with cancer of the adrenal glands is determined for each individual patient. Mild and moderate form of the disease is treated by radiotherapy. If this treatment does not have a proper result, remove one or adrenal hloditan prescribed with other drugs.
- The goal of conservative therapy is the restoration of the mineral, protein, carbohydrate metabolism. For the treatment of Cushing's syndrome are often prescribed diuretics, cardiac glycosides, as well as funds, lowering blood pressure.