Horner's syndrome in medicine is called a clinical syndrome that is characterized by impaired innervation of the sympathetic nervous system. The disease manifests itself in the first place, the defeat of the oculomotor nerve, which provides expansion and contraction of the pupils, and also allows you to open and close the eye. That is why this pathology leads to a change of one of the pupils and to the omission of the century. In most cases, Horner syndrome arises due to certain diseases, performing additional symptom of a disease.
Causes of Horner's syndrome
There are two types of Horner's syndrome: primary and secondary. The primary, or idiopathic, is a kind of self-pathology, is not a consequence of any disease. All clinical signs in this case regress by themselves. Secondary acts as kind of a result of a certain disease. Thus, one can identify a number of common causes Horner's syndrome:
- Tumors of the brain and spinal cord;
- The tumor in the upper part of the lungs (so-called tumor Pancoast);
- Various injuries of the brain and spinal cord;
- Inflammatory diseases of the first ribs;
- Inflammation of the upper spine;
- Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system;
- Inflammation of the middle part of the ear;
- Bleeding in the brain (stroke);
- Trigeminal neuralgia;
- multiple sclerosis;
- Aortic Aneurysm;
- Myasthenia gravis;
- Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland with goiter;
- Various toxicity (e.g., alcohol).
Medicine aware of some cases where the cause of Horner's syndrome advocated surgery, after which developed this pathology. Very rarely, it can also be inherited.
In children, the disease is rare: only 1, 42 cases per 100 000 children. However, it should be noted that Horner syndrome in the newborn is not always congenital disorders. Almost half of the cases it appears the result of surgery. The most common cause in such situations is the rotation of the fetus, birth difficulty shoulder, delayed childbirth and use of obstetric forceps. The last factor (forceps) in some cases, provokes Horner's syndrome in newborns due to dissection of the internal carotid artery of the child.
The symptoms of Horner's syndrome
The symptoms of Horner's syndrome is quite specific, so for him to easily determine the presence of this disease in humans. Optionally, to present all the signs, but the presence of at least two of them have already said about the disease. Consider the main symptoms of the syndrome:
- Inverted ptosis;
Myositis medicine called pupillary constriction, and ptosis - a drooping upper eyelid, which provokes narrowing gap eyes. Also, patients may experience elevated lower eyelid ptosis, or inverted.
Enophthalmos is a retraction of the eyeball, which is a common symptom of pathology. Horner's syndrome in infants can often manifest itself through heterochromia - a different color of the iris eyes. Often, it is also observed in patients with uneven coloring.
Anhidrosis in this disease a symptom, which partly prevents normal sweating on the affected side of the face. Furthermore, the process of developing impaired tear fluid.
If Horner syndrome is also frequently observed vasodilation on the eyeball and a violation of the reaction of the pupil to light. In a healthy person with strong illumination pupil narrowing, in the dark, on the contrary, expanding, whereas in patients prone to this disease, this process is considerably retarded.
How to treat Horner's syndrome
In order to know how to treat Horner's syndrome, you must initially verify the diagnosis and determine the severity of the disease. Today, there are a few basic tests by which the established presence of this disease in humans:
- The test with the ophthalmoscope, revealing delay dilated pupils;
- Paredrinom test that helps determine the cause miosis;
- Test with cocaine eye drops: when instillation in healthy people blocked the reuptake of norepinephrine, which promotes dilation of the pupils. If there is a shortage of Horner syndrome norepinephrine, and therefore there is no extension.
- The test with both eyes by dropping into a solution of m-holinoblokatoram that detects a syndrome on the same principle as the previous test.
It should be noted that the shape of idiopathic syndrome, as mentioned above, can pass independently, therefore does not require special treatment. Acquired as a clinical syndrome caused as a result of any disease, on the contrary, it involves a thorough diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic treatment. After all, despite the fact that the pathology in itself does not pose a serious risk to human health, the cause of its development can not be ignored.
Therefore, to know how to treat Horner's syndrome, it is necessary to establish a disease he was provoked, and begin to eliminate its consequences. At the same time the treatment of diseases using two basic methods: plastic surgery and neurostimulation. The first method is directed to plastic correction pronounced cosmetic defects that accompany the disease. If we turn to a professional surgeon, it is possible to restore the correct form of the eye and the age gap.
Neurostimulation also includes the impact on the affected nerve and muscle current pulses that are sent to special electrodes placed on the skin. This procedure is able to recover and prepare for the future regular load even very weak muscles. It should be noted that despite the fact that neurostimulation quite painful, it is the most effective tool for Horner syndrome as improves blood circulation and metabolism, restoring muscle tone required.