Periodontium - a set of tissues that lie between the root of the tooth and the alveolus (tooth well). One of the common complications of dental caries (35-50% of the total) is periodontitis.
Periodontitis - acute and chronic inflammation of periodontal, in which there is a violation of the integrity of the ligament holding the tooth in the alveolus, bone resorption up to the occurrence of cysts. Bone resorption of the alveoli leads to abnormal tooth mobility.
Classification of periodontitis
The following classification of periodontitis, adopted in Russia, has a slight discrepancy to its classification abroad. Russian dentists release:
- Acute periodontitis, which in turn is divided into serous and purulent.
- Chronic periodontitis - fibrotic, granulating and granulomatous
- Exacerbated chronic periodontitis.
Causes (etiology) periodontitis
The most important etiological factors of periodontal disease include: oral microflora, occlusion (taste), abnormal position of teeth, dental plaque. Equally important is the general condition of the gastrointestinal tract, diseases of the nervous and endocrine systems, metabolism in the body, vitamin imbalance.
Periodontitis in children usually arises from traumatic and infectious cause.
Characteristic symptoms of periodontitis
The resulting periodontitis, which is characterized by symptoms and is easily diagnosed, you should try to avoid at the outset. To do this, it is strongly recommended timely treatment to the doctor. Especially this recommendation concerns of parents who have small children - it depends on you systematic control of your child's teeth.
The first signs of the emergence of periodontitis is unpleasant "aching" gum when taking food with different temperature regimes, bleeding gums when brushing your teeth and bad breath.
Acute periodontitis, usually characterized by the occurrence in the initial stage of sudden severe pain without an external stimulus in the diseased tooth. The feeling of "growing up" of the tooth, the pain may subside when exposed to cold sore site. In a subsequent step of inflammation pain becomes throbbing character, may cause facial swelling. In this step, a characteristic increase in the lymph nodes and the temperature rise in the patient to 38C. If not to go to the dentist, then after 1, 5-2 weeks of acute periodontitis becomes chronic.
Chronic periodontitis is accompanied by a noticeable increase in the mobility of the teeth, change their position, form the interdental gap. Bleeding gums can occur even without a mechanical impact on them. There is a systematic pus, abscesses and acute pain.
Chronic periodontitis is characterized by its frequency - the aggravation of periodontitis replaced remission process, and the patient during these periods may calm down again, postponing visits to the doctor. In periods when there is aggravation of periodontitis, gums red and swollen, tooth pain is constant and aggravated by touching the tooth. There is a rise in body temperature.
The aggravation of periodontitis requires surgical techniques to remove the pus. This prevents tissue necrosis, spread of inflammation, eliminates or reduces pain. After removal of the pus, the doctor begins treatment of periodontitis.
Methods for diagnosing periodontitis
Diagnosing periodontitis held traditional clinical methods that can detect disease site and the extent of the inflammatory process. Diagnosing periodontitis in children, the physician faces difficulties anamnesis in the first stage - poll as the child perceives pain emotionally and may not always accurately convey their feelings.
Clinical diagnosis of periodontitis include:
- a survey of the patient;
- inspection of the mouth;
- sensing the entrance of a cavity of a tooth;
- conducting temperature tests;
- palpation - particularly effective in children as a result of the structural features of children's jaws;
- definition of mobility tooth way of progressive movements and pressing;
- more accurate diagnosis used: X-ray, radioviziografiya, electric pulp test and transillumination.
Treatment of periodontitis
Diagnosed with periodontitis, the treatment the doctor prescribes, as a rule, a comprehensive and gradual. Treatment of acute periodontitis usually requires immediate intervention and includes:
- eliminate the source of inflammation (withdrawal of pus);
- Complex physical therapy Strain
- subsequent fillings.
If treatment failure occurs tooth extraction.
If the patient has already occurred the transition from acute to chronic periodontitis, treatment is carried out depending on the complexity and development of the disease. And it is on what stage of the disease the patient falls into the hands of a professional, independent performance of all subsequent procedures.
Periodontitis in children is associated with some features of the application of the above treatments. Conservative therapy is not in all cases to achieve the elimination of the source of infection. For the treatment of periodontitis in a child, a doctor must conduct a thorough and complete diagnosis to be sure that the inflammation has spread to the germ of the permanent tooth