Increased sensitivity to the pollen of trees, shrubs and plants provokes the development of such diseases as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The common people called "hay fever", although nothing to do with the disease does not have a fever, and the hay is not the trigger for the onset of the disease.
A distinctive feature of hay fever is seasonal. Symptoms of the disease from one year to appear only in the flowering period of certain plant species. If hay fever occurs mucous membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract as a result of settling in their pollen. Also in this disease is the impact on the nervous system and internal organs. Often there is a cross-allergy, when some food intolerance experience an allergic reaction to pollen related bushes and trees, or a combination in which pollinosis developed in response to the introduction of several types of pollen.
At risk are mostly women aged 25 to 45 years. In the same age children often suffer from pollen allergy boys. The prevalence of the disease is quite significant. Despite the fact that pollinosis not in a group of diseases that affect the duration of life, it can significantly reduce quality of life. Especially in those cases where sensitization to dust attached to the existing allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis or asthma.
Types of hay fever and symptoms
It is often mistaken for acute respiratory hay fever, especially in the beginning. After all, the signs for these diseases are almost identical to each other, tearing, headache, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing and coughing. But it is still possible to identify a number of differences, on the basis of which it is possible to suspect the development of pollen allergy, t. E. Hay fever.
The most common hay fever manifests itself as rhinitis and conjunctivitis, a little less often atopic dermatitis and seasonal asthma:
- Seasonal rhinitis is characterized by profuse watery discharge from the nose, joined by tickling and itching in the nose, nasal congestion, paroxysmal cough. Children pollinosis this type can occur in combination with the noise and pain in the ears.
- When the seasonal conjunctivitis marked swelling and redness of the eyes, tearing, itching, and "sand." As a rule, true seasonal conjunctivitis, eye discharge from the mucous character, pus appear only in case of infection.
- Atopic dermatitis, hay fever at rash appears on the open areas of the body. The disease is of varying severity, from mild to severe urticaria angioneurotic angioedema.
- Asthma attacks are characteristic of seasonal asthma.
When lesions of the nervous system and internal organs hay fever may be associated with diseases such as complications of cystitis, vulvar epileptopodobnye seizures arahnoentsefalit.
All the hay fever symptoms disappear as the plants, shrubs and trees wither. In total, the disease lasts for 4-6 weeks, in severe cases - all spring - summer.
The treatment of hay fever
If hay fever treatment is aimed at reducing the sensitization of the organism. For this purpose, use antihistamines in case of ineffectiveness or in severe appointed steroids. Simultaneously used agents to relieve symptoms of the disease, both local and general significance. Not recommended for use in children for the treatment of hay fever medications, which include leaves, buds, flowers, bark and roots of various plants, shrubs and trees.
In the acute period with hay fever should strictly follow a diet. It is mandatory from the diet should be excluded honey and cross-reactive foods. For example, if you are allergic to grasses as far as possible excluded grain cereals, bread, pasta. You can not eat apples, kiwi, nuts, plums, potatoes and some other products in the sensitization to pollen of alder, birch and apple trees. Citrus fruits are not consumed in the reaction to the pollen of weeds.
In severe cases, it is shown moving to another climate zone.
Prevention of hay fever
Prevention of hay fever should be comprehensive, including an elimination event, specific immunotherapy and dieting.
An elimination events the tendency to consist of hay fever in the implementation of a number of requirements in order to minimize the harmful effects of pollen on the body. For this purpose it is necessary to avoid visiting public gardens, parks and other similar objects. The amount of pollen coming into the room can be protected by zaveshivaniya open windows and air vents with cheesecloth.
To prevent the development of atopic dermatitis, it is desirable to wear long-sleeved clothing and trousers. It is recommended to clean the room bouquets of flowers and potted flowering plants.
One of the most effective methods to achieve remission with hay fever is to carry out specific immunotherapy. It consists of introducing into the patient non-acute low doses cause-significant allergens. With each injection, the amount of allergen injected is increased, resulting in decreased hypersensitivity manipulation. Medical treatments are available only in specialized offices under the supervision of a specialist.
The remission is possible to eat all foods, but do not abuse them.