Fractures of various bones, especially the limbs are common and widespread. Leading among them are broken toes.
Fractures of the toes: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Various external damaging factors - tucking leg contusion, compression - can cause fracture of the toe. Such fractures are called traumatic. Besides them also distinguish pathologic fractures arising from some systemic diseases (osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, bone cancer, thyroid dysfunction, etc.) due to the strength of bone disorders.
In accordance with the classification in medicine are following fractures of the toes:
- closed or open,
- offset or no offset,
- partial or complete,
- located on the nail, the middle phalanx or principal; To this group belong and combined fractures.
Symptoms of fractures of the toes can be both absolute and relative.
For absolute include:
- an unnatural position,
- abnormal mobility
- characteristic crunching with pressure (crepitus).
Relative symptoms are:
- sharp pain, including motion,
- subcutaneous or subungual hemorrhage.
The relative intensity of symptoms depends on the location of the fracture. To make an accurate diagnosis and to ensure the presence of a fracture toe, except the available relative and absolute signs, the doctor will need to conduct a detailed survey of the patient and ensure that the objective of actual changes on the radiograph.
Special case: a fracture of the big toe
The first difference of the big toe from the others is the number of phalanges - two of them. Functionally, it accounts for the main load while walking. It is broken big toe often intra, characterized by sharp pain and loss of function. At the turn of the big toe cyanosis and swelling may spread to the entire surface of the foot and the other toes.
The tactics of treating fractures toe
The nature of the fracture toe affects the choice of treatment. With an open fracture is necessary to restore the normal position of fragments of bone and surrounding tissue (reposition), immobilize the finger (immobilization). In this case also required the introduction of rabies vaccine or serum, and antibiotic therapy.
If the injury is localized in the area of the nail phalanx fracture treatment toe starts with pain relief. Then from under the nail plate is removed a blood clot carried immobilization and fixation of bone.
Treatment of fracture of the toe in the middle and proximal phalanx often requires the imposition of the plantar plaster splint for 1-1, 5 months.
If the violation of the integrity of the toe bone is localized within the joint, you will need surgical treatment using needles, and in some cases, the Ilizarov fixator. After completing the course of treatment is also needed re-radiographic image. Load a previously broken finger should be limited.
As a first aid for suspected broken toe need to lift the leg to ensure blood flow and decrease edema at the site of injury, and attach to the sore spot chill for 15 minutes. Such measures are also recommended in the first few days after injury.
For the prevention of fractures of the toes recommend wearing comfortable shoes with orthopedic soles.