Acute abdomen - a clinical syndrome that develops in acute diseases and injuries of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space that require or may require emergency surgery. Acute abdomen is usually accompanied by abdominal pain of varying intensity and different nature, muscle tension of the abdominal wall, a violation intestinal motility. Psevdoabdominalny syndrome can mimic the clinical picture of this condition. When psevdoabdominalnom syndrome acute abdominal pain caused by diseases of the organs located in the abdominal cavity or outside the abdominal cavity (colitis, gastritis, pyelonephritis, acute pneumonia, myocardial infarction). These diseases are accompanied by a number of symptoms of acute abdomen, but they are treated conservatively.
The main causes of acute abdomen
Acute abdominal pain may occur in acute nonspecific inflammatory diseases of the digestive organs (pancreas, gall bladder, appendix). The development of acute abdomen may be due to perforation of an organ. The perforations typically result from different inflammatory processes or damage of organs located within the abdominal cavity.
Acute abdominal pain may be due to internal bleeding in the retroperitoneal space and peritoneal cavity (for example, to break the fallopian tube ectopic pregnancy or aneurysm of the abdominal aorta). Traumatic rupture of the spleen, liver and mesenteric vessels may also be accompanied by the development of acute abdomen.
Sudden severe pain in the abdomen can occur when intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction may develop in nodulation, volvulus, bowel infringement in the external or internal hernia, intussusception, obstruction.
The main symptoms of acute abdomen
The main symptom of acute abdominal pain is localized and spreading across the abdomen. In severe and extensive lesions pronounced pain may be accompanied by the development of shock. The pains are minor in the syndrome of acute abdomen in infants, in malnourished patients.
Vomiting - a common symptom of acute abdomen. It can occur in the first minutes or hours of the disease. During stimulation of the phrenic nerve sometimes appears persistent painful hiccups, pain with pressure between the legs of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This condition is often accompanied by violation of the passage of intestinal contents. Latency gases and stool may be associated with a dynamic or mechanical obstruction of the intestine. An important symptom of acute abdomen is the changing nature of feces. Blood in the stool may be observed in acute mesenteric circulatory disorders.
With diffuse peritonitis, massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity is usually observed a sharp pale mucous membranes and skin. For running, severe diseases that occur with a clinical picture of acute abdomen, characterized by an indifferent expression of the patient, his eyes sunken, his cheeks inverted, gray color. Intraperitoneal bleeding is usually accompanied by severe tachycardia and lower blood pressure (up to the development of collapse).
The causes of acute abdomen in children
Acute abdomen in children most often develops as a result of intestinal obstruction and acute appendicitis.
Acute abdominal pain - the main symptom of appendicitis. The child becomes lethargic, moody, bad sleep. Appendicitis is often accompanied by the appearance of watery stools with mucus, which is why the disease is often confused with an intestinal infection or poisoning. At the beginning of the disease the pain is not localized in the right iliac region, and in the upper abdomen or umbilical region. Development of the disease is not always accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fever.
With the development of intestinal obstruction baby cries, there is vomiting, a chair is absent, and the gases do not depart. The child's condition was rapidly deteriorating. In children aged from six months to a year cause of intestinal obstruction is often the intussusception. Intussusception can be caused by improper introduction of complementary foods (excess fruits and vegetables). In acute abdominal pain, associated with intestinal obstruction may occur vomiting with bile or intestinal contents. Thus instead of stool from the rectum out blood with mucus.
In acute abdominal pain to the doctor's examination can not give your child pain medicine. To determine the cause of pain can not feed the baby.
If severe abdominal pain does not stop within an hour, you should immediately call the medical care.
Acute abdomen in gynecology
Acute abdomen in gynecology - a set of symptoms caused by various pathologies of the abdominal organs (pelvic). Sharp pain in the abdomen - the main symptom of acute abdomen in gynecology (paroxysmal or persistent, various character - stabbing, cutting). There may be vomiting, dizziness, weakness, bleeding, hiccups. Acute abdominal pain may be accompanied by pressure on the anus and problems with a chair.
The most common cause of acute abdomen in gynecology is an ectopic pregnancy (more than 48% of cases). Acute abdominal pain may occur in inflammation of the ovaries in the acute form and ovarian apoplexy.
The cause of acute abdomen may be traumatic damage and poor circulation in the tissues of the uterus, as well as acute inflammation of internal genital organs (acute adnexitis, torsion legs cyst or tumor of the ovary, uterus myoma node necrosis).
This syndrome may occur after surgery on the uterus and appendages, abortion, and against the background of infectious diseases at advanced stage.