Acute renal failure
Brief description of the disease
Under acute renal failure refers to abrupt cessation or a sudden decline in health of both kidneys (or only in the case of people who have had one kidney removed). The bodies can no longer perform their filtration, excretory and secretory functions. That is what is dangerous and acute renal failure. Treatment of the disease depends on the reason that it was caused by, associated diseases and a number of other important factors.
Acute renal failure - causes of the disease
- trauma, sepsis, severe burns, allergic shock, and other phenomena that lead to prolonged bleeding and lack of blood supply to the kidney tissue. A similar result was also observed in a large loss of water and uncontrolled use of diuretics;
- toxic effects, side effects of certain drugs, kidney disease (acute gloumerulonefrit, hypertension, rheumatic);
- blockage of the urinary tract or squeezing in the tumor process. At the same time the person first appears a little swelling, which eventually grows and leads to necrosis of kidney tissue.
Acute renal failure - symptoms
- decreased amount of urine (oliguria) or its absence (anuria);
- general deterioration of health of the patient;
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- lack of appetite;
- liver enlargement and swelling of extremities;
- inhibited reaction of the patient to habitual actions and stimuli. Sometimes the apparent apathy is replaced by excitement.
Acute renal failure causes the kidneys stop working to comply with the electrolytic balance of blood. As a result, blood vessels begin to spread through the body products of protein metabolism - creatinine and urea. At the same time violated the secretory function of kidneys and reducing the amount of red blood cells. Acute renal failure, treatment is not carried out, or was carried out in violation of generally accepted principles, leads to serious complications and disorders in the work of all major body systems.
Acute renal failure - Treatment and prognosis
In the early stages of the disease it is necessary to take measures to eliminate the causes of acute renal failure, among which may be listed as a variety of diseases and all kinds of pathological processes. In the case of a large blood loss, doctors use a special blood substitutes. It should be as fast as possible to deduce toxins. For this purpose, the patient is prescribed gastric lavage and antidotes, for example, unitiol, the main task - to bind toxins and prevent their further spread of the human body. To clean the blood using modern medical equipment, including plasmapheresis. If the patient has a urinary tract blockage, you must restore them to conduct cross-country or a puncture to drain the collected urine.
As for the treatment of acute renal failure. Nowadays, the most commonly used osmotic diuretics (sorbitol, mannitol). They are particularly effective in the early stages of the disease. At the same time the doctors control water balance, the amount of urea and electrolytes in the blood. The patient is assigned to a strict diet, anabolic hormones and vitamin E. In the absence of positive dynamics of hospital specialists are considering the use of hemodialysis.
Forecasts of treatment depend on the dynamics of the disease. Typically, after the medical care provided kidney reduced its efficiency in terms from 6 months to 2 years.
Acute renal failure in children
In children, the disease manifests itself by the same symptoms as adults. Conventionally, the disease can be divided into three steps:
- the first stage dominates the overall symptoms, recurrent symptoms of disease or poison, which arose due to failure;
- drastic reduction or complete absence of diuresis (urination), vomiting, stomach pain, unstable chair;
- the gradual recovery of diuresis on the background of increased consumption of water and electrolyte balance disorders blood.
Proceed to the treatment of the disease should be immediately after an accurate diagnosis. First of all, you must remove the cause, which was caused by acute renal failure in children. This is also supported by an adequate renal blood flow, produced plasma transfusion, reception sosudorasshirayuschih funds unless they are authorized by the attending physician. Like adults, children need to observe strict carbohydrate diet. The choice of drugs is some complexity in the numerous contraindications, so we will not dwell on this point, leaving the decision on the appointment of specific drugs personnel specialized medical institution.