Osteoma - benign bone tumor demarcated, coming from the bone and consisting of bone, long and slow-growing and has a view of the hemisphere. Earlier in the concept of an osteoma, regardless of origin include all bone formation (traumatic, blastomatous, inflammatory and neuropathic), but now with all the problems of differentiation of the tumor from hyperplastic education in medicine above sprawl more to the concept of osteoma not.
The tumor is formed on the bones of the skeleton, and often occurs in the thigh, the key, the temporal and frontal bones, as well as in cavities orbit and facial bones. Osteoma of the frontal bone and sphenoid bone are often derived from embryonic cartilage debris.
Ost, located above the surface of the bone is called exostosis, and enclosed in a spongy substance - enostosis.
Usually there are single tumor (solitary), but there are also multiple exostosis, which are systemic diseases belong to ecchondroma. In very rare cases emanating from the found osteoblastoma osteoblasts, which stands on the border between benign tumors and sarcomas (malignant tumors).
In some cases, especially when multiple exostosis, osteoma appears as a result of genetic predisposition, because with a probability of 50% of the disease is transmitted by direct descendants. Also causes of osteoma are:
Osteo bone separated by the order of the structure into the following types:
The solid, which consists of a dense compact substance resembling ivory. This material does not contain the bone marrow and almost completely incorporates the Haversian canals;
Spongy, which consists of a porous spongy substance;
Medullary, which consists of large broad medullary cavity.
On the genesis of osteoma also share in the epiphyseal and periosteal exostoses.
Osteoma the bone contains the bone plate with bone corpuscles lying among them. These plates are located around the Haversian canals and the medullary space. Depending on the above mentioned tumor types fluctuate gaversovyh number of channels and the amount of bone marrow space. Bone tissue, part of the frontal bone osteoma is often composed of cartilage islands embedded in the subcortical layer or spongy substance.
Symptoms of osteoma
Often osteoma develops symptoms and pain occur only when the tumor is an obstacle to the movement of bone or pressing on a nerve. When the location of the tumor on the upper plate of the skull bones can cause headaches, seizures and problems with memory. If osteoma located in the sinuses, there is a loss of vision, and the localization of the tumor in the region of the sphenoid bone of the skull there is a violation of hormonal background.
Initially, based on the results of clinical and radiological findings, diagnosed osteoma, then treatment is prescribed.
Osteoma treatment is complete resection of the tumor. Surgery is indicated for organ dysfunction, severe pain, growth retardation and bone changes form, which result in limited mobility and impaired limbs static. During surgery, the surgeon removes the tumor, followed by resection of the plate to be healthy bones. If the disease is not accompanied by symptoms and swelling of the small size, it is considered appropriate to conduct follow-up.