Disease of the breast
Breast disease - the most frequent disease of the breast.
The first symptoms of mastitis may appear in adolescence, although in this case the disease is not necessarily progressive, often after the establishment of hormonal balance teenage breast passes independently. The disease can manifest itself in the age of early menopause, 50-55 years. However, the most susceptible to mastitis women aged 30-45 years.
When mastitis occurs changing the structure of breast tissue, fibrous tissue grows and there are cysts, hence the name of the disease, adopted by the World Health Organization - fibrocystic disease (Fibrocystic Breast Disease).
Breast disease is so common that sometimes it is considered almost the norm, and for a long time do not pay attention to the symptoms of mastitis until they become so pronounced that significantly impair quality of life. Breast is not the norm. It is a benign disease of tumor nature, under unfavorable conditions degenerate into malignant.
In most cases, breast cancer is preceded by breast disease.
Causes of mastitis
The immediate cause of mastitis is a hormonal imbalance in the body. Fibrous growths in the breast appear under the influence of the growth of estrogen and prolactin, a hormone that ensures lactation in the postpartum period.
The causes of hormonal imbalance can be set. On hormone is influenced by many factors, from neurogenic (stress, fatigue, chronic fatigue) to infectious (inflammatory diseases of the female genital tract).
Bad habits, especially smoking tobacco also increases the risk of mastitis.
In addition to these, the risk factors include the following:
- Abortion, including artificial (abortion);
- Endocrine diseases;
- Late first pregnancy;
- Refusal from breastfeeding or untimely interruption of breastfeeding;
- Lack of birth;
- Chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Long-term hormone therapy.
Types of mastitis
There are diffuse and nodular mastopathy.
In diffuse mastopathy proliferation of connective tissue affect the entire breast tissue, connective tissue formed at the junction nodes. Nodes can have different dimensions, and be single or multiple. Nodal mastopathy often leads to the development of cancer.
By the nature of the elements of defeat distinguish these types of mastitis:
- fibrotic mastopathy;
- cystic mastopathy;
- fibrocystic breast disease.
Most often speak of fibrocystic breast as proliferation of connective tissue and form the fibrous bands, and cysts - cavity of fibrous tissue, fluid-filled.
Isolated fibrous breast and cystic breast disease occur more frequently. Mammology believe that the term fibrous breast and cystic breast correctly use the terms diffuse mastopathy with prevalence fibrous component, and breast with a predominance of cystic component, as in any form of present and fibrous proliferation, and cysts.
Symptoms of mastitis
The main symptom of mastitis, to which women go to the doctor, it is painful breast. Initially pain depends on the menstrual cycle and appear a few days before the menstrual period, and then held. In the later stages of the disease the pain is constant, and can be very intense.
The characteristic symptoms of mastitis is also directed seal gland - this may be the general feeling of the seal gland tissue in diffuse form, or the appearance of nodules in the nodular form of mastitis.
There may be discharge from the nipple. When mastitis selection transparent, greenish or similar to milk. Spotting is an unfavorable sign, and can be an indication of malignancy, so when they appear necessary immediate access to a doctor.
Mastitis symptoms appear, usually on both mammary glands, although they may have varying degrees of severity.
Diagnosis of mastitis
When mastitis, as well as breast cancer, the importance of self-diagnostics.
Palpation of the breast in the mirror with his hand behind his head, allows you to test the nodules and induration strands of connective tissue, and cysts. When accessing mammologu conducted the following studies:
- inspection is carried out on the fifth to eleventh day of the menstrual cycle;
- mammography, conducted from the tenth to the twelfth day of the menstrual cycle;
- ultrasound of the breast, held for the fifth-eleventh day of the menstrual cycle;
- biopsy of cysts and nodules;
- cytologic study of discharge from the nipple.
Treatment of mastitis
Treatment of mastitis can be both conservative and surgical, depending on the type of the disease, its stage, and some of the individual factors.
Usually, the surgical treatment of mastitis in the case of resorting nodular and cystic mastitis at failure of several courses of conservative therapy, as well as in cases of suspected malignancy process. In this case, carried out an operation called sectoral resection of breast cancer.
Conservative treatment of mastitis include medication and non-drug agents. Drug treatment of mastitis is mainly hormones, and is aimed at restoring the lost hormonal balance. Appointed strictly individually, after a series of tests for hormone levels.
In addition to the hormones used analgesic anti-inflammatory drugs, iodine preparations for the normalization of the thyroid gland, affecting the sex hormones, a course strengthening therapy.
Experts say that one of the highlights of ensuring the success or failure of treatment of mastitis, regardless of its form, is to normalize the way of life, as the main factor of the disease.
It should be possible to get rid of stress, provide a restful sleep, the mode of work and rest, go on a proper diet, pay attention to physical activity and outdoor exercise, try to maintain a regular sex with a regular partner. Sometimes, for the treatment of mastitis in the initial stages of these measures are sufficient for a complete recovery. In the case of a more serious stage of the disease, measures to normalize the way of life is a necessary background to provide proper exposure medical and surgical equipment. After recovery, you must continue to maintain a healthy lifestyle as a relapse prevention of mastitis.
When mastitis is forbidden to expose his chest UV (such as solar radiation and tanning in a solarium), banned thermal procedures (baths, saunas, etc.), massage, use of hormonal contraceptives without a prescription.