Leukoplakia of the bladder
Leukoplakia of the bladder - a chronic disease in which cells of transitional epithelium lining the cavity of the bladder, squamous cells are replaced.
There are areas covered cornified epithelium which, unlike the transition does not protect the bladder wall by exposure to the active components of urine, causing chronic inflammation.
The disease occurs more often in women than in men, due to the peculiarities of the structure of the female urethra, which is why the bladder more available for infection, which, as it turned out, played a leading role in the occurrence of leukoplakia of the bladder.
Causes of bladder leukoplakia
The main route of infection in the bladder - ascending, ie, of the external genitalia. The most common cause of bladder leukoplakia sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - ureaplasma, mycoplasma, trichomonas, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes virus. However, the possible and the downward path of infection when the infection gets into the bladder through the blood or lymph from the kidney, intestine, uterus and its appendages. In that case, agents are Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, Proteus, and others.
Predisposed to the disease leukoplakia bladder are:
- Chronic diseases of neighboring organs;
- Remote foci of chronic infection (carious teeth, chronic sinusitis, tonsillitis, etc.);
- Long exceeding the allowable time frame, the use of an intrauterine device;
- Anomalies in the structure of the genitourinary system;
- Disordered sex life, without the use of barrier contraception;
- Endocrine diseases;
- Hypothermia, hectic lifestyle, stress, lack of rest - all are factors that reduce immunity.
Symptoms of bladder leukoplakia
The main symptoms of leukoplakia of the bladder, with complaints that patients go to the doctor, is a pain in the pelvic area (chronic pelvic pain) and voiding. These symptoms can have different degrees of severity, they are most clearly manifested in leukoplakia of the bladder neck - areas increasingly vulnerable to the emergence of this disease. The pain in this disease dull, aching, may be permanent. Patients feel discomfort in the bladder. When leukoplakia of the bladder neck urination causes cutting pain or a burning sensation.
During exacerbation of the symptoms of inflammation of the bladder leukoplakia join cystitis symptoms: frequent urination, intermittent stream, incomplete emptying of the bladder during urination, increased pain when urinating, general condition worsens.
In general, leukoplakia bladder symptoms are very similar with the symptoms of cystitis, which often cause errors and diagnostic treatment failure. As a result of research carried out by urologists, it was found that most of the women treated unsuccessfully for a long time from chronic cystitis and experiencing constant pelvic pain syndrome, actually suffered leukoplakia of the bladder neck, which was found after a thorough advanced diagnostics.
Diagnosis of bladder leukoplakia
To establish a diagnosis of leukoplakia of the bladder using the following studies:
- Overall, biochemical, bacteriological urine;
- Functional tests of urine on Nechiporenko;
- All kinds of tests for sexually transmitted infections (bakposev, PIF, PCR);
- Gynecological examination of the patient with the obligatory taking to analyze vaginal contents;
- Pelvic ultrasound;
- A biopsy of the bladder wall.
When conducting research aimed at the discovery of STIs, it should be noted that in the period of remission of symptoms of leukoplakia of bladder tests may not show the presence of infection. Research in this case, repeat during acute illness or after provocation.
Cystoscopy is the main method in the diagnosis of leukoplakia of the bladder, allows to differentiate this disease from chronic cystitis.
Treatment of leukoplakia of the bladder
Depending on the stage of the process and extent of injury, choose a method of treatment of leukoplakia of the bladder. The disease is treated with medical and surgical means.
Therapeutic treatment of leukoplakia of the bladder is made up of several groups of destination of drugs for complex effects on the pathogen and affected their areas of tissue. Apply antibacterial drugs, acting at identifying flora, anti-inflammatory, fortifying agents, immunomodulators. In order to protect the damaged bladder wall from the aggressive action of urine instillation use (irrigation) of the urinary bladder drugs are analogs of natural glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid, heparin, chondroitin, and others.) - Substances that restore the damaged layer of the epithelium.
Widely used physiotherapy leukoplakia of the bladder: electrophoresis of drugs, laser therapy, magnetic therapy, microwave exposure, ie, all those methods that contribute to the removal of inflammation, nutrition and regeneration of tissues, eliminate adhesions that often accompanies chronic inflammation.
In the event of failure of the therapeutic methods or advanced stage disease, resorting to surgery leukoplakia of the bladder. This is an extreme measure, but sometimes it is the only effective way to treat the disease. When leukoplakia bladder surgery called TUR - transurethral resection of the bladder. This endoscopic surgery carried out with the help of a cystoscope that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder, where with the help of a special loop cut off the affected area of tissue. Cystoscope provided with fiber optic light source and a camera, whereby operation leukoplakia bladder extends under direct vision, and it becomes possible to complete the removal of the damaged body portions, while maintaining its integrity.
Complications of bladder leukoplakia
The danger of leukoplakia of the bladder, in addition to causing discomfort, is that the wall of the bladder as a result of long flowing inflammatory sclerosing loses its elasticity, because of which the bladder becomes malovmestimym and actually loses its function as retention of urine occurs only during 20-30 minutes, after which it begins to leak. Gradually developing renal failure, leading to death.
Leukoplakia of the bladder is also a precancerous condition, which means that in the absence of quality care is able to degenerate into cancer.
In view of this, the treatment of leukoplakia of the bladder should be adequate and urgent.