Almost any dermatological disease accompanied by the appearance of skin rash. The skin - the largest organ of the human, and therefore a violation of internal homeostasis, than, in fact, is a disease that will lead to change it. Often these changes are manifested rash. Especially common skin rash in children.
Types of skin rash
Skin rash can be represented by different species. Rashes may be different from each other not only in appearance, but also the speed of appearance, location, presence or absence of itching, etc.
There are the following basic primary morphological elements of skin rashes:
1. Stain or makula. Located on the same level with the skin intact. It appears in violation of pigment metabolism, vascular changes, with the introduction of artificial dyes under the skin (tattoos, etc.). Vascular spot usually has color options ranging from dark cherry to light pink. By pressing disappears. Rapidly restores color. These signs point to an inflammatory character. Stains caused by increased permeability of the vessel wall, called hemorrhagic. The simplest example is a bruise. Bleeding into the skin in the form of dots or spots of varying shapes and sizes, which occurs due to the destruction of vessels in the skin, called hemorrhage (haemorrhagia). Petechiae (reteshia) - is the most small or petechial hemorrhages. Many hemorrhages rounded shape of 2-5 mm in diameter are described as hemorrhagic purpura (rigriga haetogghagioe).
Hemorrhage 5 mm irregular shape called ecchymosis (eshutoses).
Hemorrhagic rashes occur in typhus, sepsis, hemorrhagic fevers. For meningococcemia, sepsis is characterized by stellate haemorrhagic skin rash. There is also a vascular stains are not inflammatory nevus, telangiectasias, birthmarks, vitiligo (depigmentation areas).
Fit isolated punctate rash of spots 5-10mm and 10-20mm krupnopyatnistuyu. Punctulate occurs when rubella krupnopyatnistaya may be a sign of allergies, measles.
At the confluence of the major spots formed erythema - erythema (Lat.). She appears at expansion vessels papillar choroid plexus of the skin. The size of a 20mm. Typical disease with erythema - erysipelas. 1st degree burns are also views of erythema. All non-inflammatory patches resistant, pressure-sensitive disappear.
2. Blister or ultrica. It is a fairly dense, towering above the skin intact, round or oval rash element. It has no cavity. Itches. I tend to the rapid emergence. It disappears without a trace. One of the most common symptoms of skin rash in the form of a blister is a trace of the nettle. Often a skin rash in the form of blisters found in allergic reactions.
3. papule, nodule - papula. It represents bespolosnoy, dense, towering above the unchanged skin rash element. The size varies from 2 mm to 3 cm. Large papules called plaque.
Depending on the size of the papules can be:
- miliary (millet grain);
- lenticular papules (with lentils, peas);
- numulyarnye or coin-like, formed by a merger between a large flat papules in peripheral growth.
Very often, children skin rash in the form of papules indistinguishable from roseolous.
Papules occurring epidermal thickening due to limited cell layers, called epidermal flat warts. Also papules may be formed in the dermis as a result of the development of tumors, inflammation, deposition of organic compounds (xanthoma, dermal papules in syphilis and others.). There are also epidermal - dermal papules arising from two layers of the skin. Found in lichen planus, psoriasis and others. Papules form depends on the depth and may be flat, polygonal, pointed, hemispherical.
Papules color depends on the cause of its occurrence. Thus, inflammatory papules are red. The gray-yellow color characteristic of cholesterol plaques.
This type of rash disappear without a trace.
4. tubercle or tuberkulum - is dense, bespolostnoe limited education, located above the surface of the skin intact. Size of 1-10 mm. Formed as a result of accumulation of inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. Unlike papules that palpation protuberance clearly defined dense infiltration. In the reverse development tubercle undergoes necrosis, often with ulceration and the formation of scar behind scar or skin atrophy. This type of rash occurs as a manifestation of leishmaniasis, tuberculosis skin lesions, as well as tertiary and late congenital syphilis.
5. Node or nodus - is limited, bespolostnoe located deep in the skin seal. Towering over the skin intact. The value of units ranging from hazelnut to the size of a hen's egg. Formed this type of skin rash at the cluster of cell infiltrate in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Units inflammatory doughy consistency or soft, do not have clear boundaries, prone to rapid disappearance and have often reddish coloration of the skin over them. Knots formed at specific inflammation denser, prone to ulceration and decay. In their place is often formed scar.
6. The vial or vesicula - this kind of skin rash abdominal size 1-5mm. Formed as a result of detachment of the epidermis. It can be filled with bloody, cloudy or clear content. Shrinking into a transparent or brown crust. When spontaneous dissection formed by erosion from the soak. When connecting infection bubble turns into an abscess or pustule (rustula). A typical kind of skin rashes in children in the form of a bubble are the chickenpox rash. Also, an example can be rash when herpes simplex, enterovirus infection.
7. The bubble or bulla - this cavity member disposed in the upper layer of the epidermis and underneath. The diameter of 3-5 cm. Content may be serous, bloody or purulent. Could be fallen down or opened with the formation of erosion. It leaves behind the unstable pigmentation. It occurs when herpetiformis dermatosis (elements located under the epidermis) and pemphigus vulgaris (vesicles within the epidermis).
Secondary species rash called elements formed from primary, i.e. hyper- or depigmentation, scales, erosions, abrasions, ulcers etc.
Treatment of skin rash
Regardless of whether the rash dermatological manifestation of the disease or not, the treatment of skin rashes can be divided into two types:
- Impact on the cause of the rash, that direct treatment of the underlying disease. If you experience any rash is necessary to apply to a specialist, who will treat skin rashes.
- Often accompanied by itching skin rash, elements can be opened, to fester. That is why, apart from the treatment of the disease, it is necessary hygiene, handling rash certain drugs, in some cases, skin treatment prophylactically.