Bleeding - the most dangerous complications of post-traumatic, life-threatening injured person. The degree of risk potential dependent upon the particular characteristics and the location of the damaged vessels.
Types of bleeding
There is the following classification of bleeding:
Capillary bleeding. This type of bleeding occurs with injury of small vessels located in the mucous membranes, muscle tissue, skin. Signs of bleeding from capillaries is a dark red color of blood, a small trickle of blood profluvium (at superficial cuts) or even discharge of blood across the surface of the wound (with scratches). Capillary bleeding is rarely life threatening and health of the affected person (if there is no disease hemophilia and blood clotting problems), and usually stops on its own.
Venous bleeding. The main signs of bleeding from the veins is the slow, but continuous profluvium blood from the wound. The blood is dark red. When venous bleeding considerable power to prevent the loss of a large amount of blood is an urgent need to pinch the damaged vessel using any means at hand (you can even with a finger).
Parenchymal bleeding. It refers to internal bleeding. Characteristically for wounds and injuries of the lungs, liver, spleen and other internal organs. With this type may profluvium blood of different colors (depending on whether it is an internal organ damage) - a dark red and bright scarlet. Upon exiting blood outward, it acts evenly on all wound surfaces. The greatest danger is an option when parenchymal bleeding occurs hidden. The patient is at risk of losing a lot of blood, without waiting for first aid, as Diagnosis of internal bleeding is extremely difficult.
Arterial bleeding. A characteristic feature of the bleeding artery is pulsating jet flow of blood from the wound, the color of the blood is bright red hue. This type is especially dangerous for the life of the victim, as rapidly leads to the onset of a full bleeding body. The development of acute anemia in arterial bleeding accompanied by the following, the most pronounced signs: heart rate and drop in blood pressure, paleness, progressive skin and mucous membranes, nausea, vomiting, blackouts, dizziness, loss of consciousness.
Mixed (combined) hemorrhage - occurs with extensive injuries and combines various types of bleeding, as described in the preceding paragraphs.
Treatment of bleeding
Events in first aid for bleeding must be started as soon as possible in a short period of time after the injury. They consist primarily in stopping bleeding and preventing substantial loss of blood. When it comes to arterial bleeding, the necessary measures to stop the bleeding must be taken without delay, t. To. In this type of bleeding in a short period of wound damage derives a significant amount of blood. Quick and sharp loss of blood (more than two liters) can lead to the death of the victim, especially if the bleeding is combined with the combined traumatic injuries.
For obvious reasons, first aid for bleeding, usually performed outside the medical establishment. Therefore, this procedure is temporary, and is to stop the bleeding as soon as possible to transport an injured person in a medical hospital.
Ways to temporarily stop the bleeding:
A pressure bandage. Used for pressing immediate location of bleeding. Impose on the wound surface sterile gauze bandage (without - any piece of clean natural fabric) and tightly pribintovyvayut (in the absence of material for bandaging, just pressed the bandage to the wound by hand). Apply with a capillary, venous and mixed bleeding moderate intensity.
At insignificant bleeding wound in the foot injuries, lower leg, fingers, etc. use the method of imparting the injured limb elevated position. Good to combine this method with the imposition of a pressure bandage.
In the case of arterial bleeding and the need for an immediate stop bleeding (when there is no time to search for suitable means), a method of pressing a finger bleeding artery. Arteries are pressed at certain anatomical points where they can be tightly pressed against the bone, and thereby temporarily stop the bleeding.