Jaw cysts - tissue cavity filled with fluid and lined with epithelium.
Cysts of the upper and lower jaws often occur in cystic residues or developing tooth erupted. The outer layer of cysts consists of connective tissue and the inner layer is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. Jaw cysts occur in patients of all ages. Cyst of the upper jaw is formed three times more likely than a cyst of the mandible.
Classification of jaw cysts
There are three main types of jaw cysts - keratokistu (primordial), follicular and radicular cysts. Keratokista - a cyst of the mandible with thin fibrous walls. It is formed in the place where there is the so-called wisdom tooth. Keratokista can be both single and multi-camera. Its cavity contains a substance usually cholesteatoma. After removal of the cyst of the mandible can be restored due to violations of the jaw tissues.
Follicular cyst is formed and develops from the enamel of the teeth, which could not be cut. The cyst is formed at the locations of the upper and lower canine teeth (the second and third premolars). From inside the follicular cyst is paved with flat stratified epithelium. Inside the cyst of the jaw can be arranged formed or unformed teeth.
Radicular cyst - is the most common cyst, it is found in 80% of cases, usually it is formed near the root of the tooth. Radicular cyst develops with prolonged periodontitis. The walls of the radicular cyst fibrous, thin-film. The surface of the cyst is paved stratified epithelium. Its walls consist of lymphocytes and plasma cells. When inflammation of the cyst plasma cells grow, giperplaziruyutsya and sent into the wall, causing painful inflammation. With a significant sprouting cyst can penetrate the maxillary sinus, causing the development of chronic sinusitis.
Symptoms of jaw cysts
Different types of cysts is usually a long time does not appear. Only at a relatively large scale the outer wall of the jaw cysts can become thinner front wall of the upper jaw, and sometimes can appear painful rounded protrusion. Symptoms of jaw cysts are similar to the symptoms of osteomyelitis, manifested in the development of suppurative disease.
Methods of treating jaw cysts
There are two main methods of treating jaw cysts - cystotomy and cystectomy
. Cystectomy - removal of the cyst of the jaw and then stitching the wound
. Cystectomy is prescribed for a cyst, which malformation of the epithelium, with the small size of the cyst located in the area of the jaw zubosoderzhaschey within one-two intact teeth
. Cystectomy is prescribed for a large cyst of the lower jaw, upper jaw cyst at large
. The procedure is carried out in cystectomy if tooth root submerged in a cystic cavity is not more than a third of its length
. At a deeper immersion teeth cease to perform its function and fall quite early
. The main drawback of the method cystectomy that cut microtubules are often subject to reinfection
. Now fill in bone cavities using biocomposite materials
. Biocomposite materials accelerate the regeneration, helping to restore form and function of the jaw
Cystotomy - removal of the front wall of the cyst of the jaw and its connection with the oral cavity. The operation reduces the flattening and cystic cavities. Cystotomy usually easily tolerated by patients, but the postoperative defect persists for a long time.
Method oronazalnoy cystectomy and oronazalnoy cystoma used to remove cysts of the jaw, which penetrates into the maxillary sinus, and pushes her in chronic sinusitis. During the operation, the maxillary sinus cavity is connected to the cyst and report form a single cavity with a lower nose course. Oronazalnuyu cystectomy used in the absence of teeth in the brush area or when the one-two teeth in its area. Oronazalnaya cystotomy used in patients with concomitant diseases, as well as a large number of teeth is facing in a cystic cavity.
If cystotomy cystectomy and spend time, it is possible to do without opening the cyst and operations. But most of all requires an autopsy, which removes fluid and abscess, cyst of the jaw is cleared. Cystotomy cystectomy and allow you to save a cyst located in the area of the teeth and restore lost functions.
During plastic cystectomy comes complete removal of a cystic sheath. After removal of the cyst jaw wound is not sutured, and tamponiruyut germicidal solution.
With extensive cysts sometimes use both types of surgical treatment of jaw cysts - cystectomy and cystotomy. In the first stage, the decompression operation - producing a message with the type of oral cystotomy, and after one or two years by cystectomy.