Menopause (Menopause) - postreproductive period in a woman's life, characterized by the extinction of sexual and reproductive functions. Climax - genetically caused hormonal transformation of the body. The collection of symptoms associated with menopause, called the climacteric syndrome.
Early menopause is also called syndrome ovarian failure. Menopause - a natural restructuring of the female organism, which normally occurs at the age of 46-52 years. However, there are cases of early menopause (before 36 years) and late menopause (after 60 years). Regardless of the age at which menopause occurs, this state is accompanied by a number of characteristic symptoms and signs. Menopause is not a disease, disorder or dysfunction of body systems, respectively, treated to resist or prevent this condition is impossible. In recent years, doctors say about the possibility of delaying menopause. However, reliable methods of therapy prolongs reproductive function and postpone menopause, are not yet known.
Menopause is characterized by decreased production of sex hormones in women, decreased ovarian response to hormones produced by the pituitary gland. During menopause there is a failure of the menstrual cycle, dominated by anovulatory menstrual cycles, which significantly reduces a woman's ability to conceive.
During menopause a standard 3-phase release:
- Premenopausal women - long phase of menopause, which is characterized by decreasing fertility of women. Despite significant declines in fertility function in premenopausal woman still capable of conceiving and carrying a child;
- Menopause - there are several interpretations of the concept. Menopause is considered as the last menstrual period in a woman's life, and the very last menstrual period. Menopause diagnosed if the last menstrual period has passed at least 12 months;
- Postmenopause - the phase of menopause occurs after the last menstrual period and lasts until the end of life.
Factors influencing the onset of menopause in women
Certain factors directly or indirectly influence the onset of menopause in women. It is believed that the main factors contributing to early menopause in women are:
- Genetic predisposition, heredity (the number of follicles in the ovaries, hormone synthesis processes follicles function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland);
- Chronic diseases (hormonal imbalance of the body, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, thyroid disease, cancer and transferred radiotherapy);
- Geography (active solar rays contribute to early menstruation and late menopause);
- Socio-economic factors (according to the statistics, women are less prone to stress, is not engaged in heavy physical labor, with normalized work schedules and rest, menopause develops much later);
- Behavioral factors (healthy lifestyle, sexual activity);
- Psychological factors (stress, nervous disorders, psychiatric disorders, emotional instability contribute to early menopause).
Symptoms of menopause
The first signs of menopause is not associated with the extinction of reproductive function, as the symptoms of the period of a general nature for a number of disorders of the reproductive function. The early signs of menopause and symptoms highly individual. The main symptoms of menopause, allowing to determine its origin, can be autonomic and psychological and emotional nature.
By autonomic signs of menopause include:
- Occasional flushing (feeling of alternating heat and chills);
- Increased sweating;
- Cardiovascular disorders (tachycardia, false angina, unstable blood pressure);
- Frequent headaches, migraines, vertigo.
For psycho-emotional climax features include:
- Causeless irritability;
- Fatigue, lethargy, depression;
- Mood changes;
- Impaired attention and memory;
- Sleep disturbance;
- Decreased libido.
It is a mistake to believe that the signs of menopause indicate suppression of sexual and reproductive function in 100% of cases. The manifestation of these signs together against the backdrop of changes in the menstrual cycle (scant menstrual bleeding, irregular cycles, changes in symptoms of premenstrual syndrome) - a reason to see a doctor gynecologist-endocrinologist. Symptoms of early menopause should be differentiated from other disorders (abnormalities of the pituitary gland, thyroid, psychological disorders).
Menopause: Symptoms and Risks
In addition to the early signs of menopause symptoms that accompany this process can be physical and psycho-emotional character.
If menopause symptoms are as follows:
- Changes in the mucous membranes (also genitals) with their frequent inflammation, dryness;
- Dysfunctional uterine bleeding;
- Malfunctions of the urinary system (frequent urination, urinary incontinence, inflammation);
- Frequent inflammation of the vaginal bacterial origin;
- Atrophy of the vaginal mucosa;
- Metabolic syndrome (metabolic disorders, weight gain);
- Osteoporosis (bone fragility) that develops due to violation of calcium metabolism;
- Cardiovascular diseases;
- Alzheimer's Disease.
Climax: the treatment, prevention
When menopause treatment focuses on normalizing the functions of the body systems subject to restructuring in this period. Thus, when menopause treatment involves bracing, symptomatic, hormone therapy, psychotherapy.
Menopause is not a disease, it is a natural process of the body. The basis of the treatment of menopause Hormone replacement therapy is used to compensate for failure of ovarian function.
Menopause can not be prevented or avoided. However, this inevitable period of life can be prepared. A healthy lifestyle, nutrition, physical activity, normal mental and emotional state will avoid heavy symptoms of menopause and it is easier to go through a period of restructuring and adaptation of the organism.
Preparations in menopause: hormone replacement therapy
To eliminate symptoms appointed hormones during menopause, fills ovarian failure. Preparations in menopause are determined by gynecologist-endocrinologist in each individual case, after a thorough inspection and avoid possible risks and contraindications, including:
- Cancer (breast cancer, endometrial cancer);
- Endometrial hyperplasia;
- Abnormal uterine bleeding;
- Arterial hypertension;
- The tendency to thrombosis;
- Liver disease.