Itching of the skin
Under the skin itch understand specific unpleasant sensation that causes the need for brushing the affected area. It is not an independent disease, but only symptom that often indicates the defeat of the skin, nervous system and internal organs.
As the prevalence of distinction:
- Local itching (such as itching of the scalp, itching on the flexion of the wrist, or itching of the skin of hands);
- Generalized itching.
Itching of the skin - the subjective feeling, the intensity is difficult to assess, but it can be severe or minor, at the time - constant or intermittent.
The mechanism of pruritus is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. It is based on a chain of successive neural and humoral responses in the skin, wherein the chain may run many different factors.
It is known that pain and pruritus perceived the same receptors in the skin. The origin of itching huge role of biologically active substances secreted by leukocytes and other cells of the immune system. These include histamine, leukotrienes, bradykinin, serotonin, etc. Alternatively, these substances also known mediators of inflammation.
Local causes of itching:
- Excessive dryness of the skin;
- Allergic reaction or action of irritating substances;
- Infectious and parasitic processes in the skin;
- Skin elements as a manifestation of some infections (eg, varicella, scarlet fever, etc.).
Causes of generalized pruritus:
- Elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood;
- Mental disorders;
- Endocrine disorders (eg, diabetes);
- Diseases of the blood (anemia, polycythemia);
- Several cancer.
Itching of the skin in certain diseases
Itching of the skin may be a symptom of mange, which is caused by the itch mite. In this case, itching of the skin between the toes is determined hands, wrists (flexor surface), part of the transition to the skin of the abdomen and scrotum in men. Tick to select breeding places with the most tender and delicate skin. In the evening and night with scabies itching intensified. For scabies is not characteristic itchy scalp and face.
In diabetes the body is itching in the anus and genitals. The reason - activation of Candida fungus that feeds on glucose. Children itchy skin around the anus is at enterobioze.
Itching of the scalp with seborrhea is possible (when the skin is very oily), or lice. For seborrhea characterized as oily hair that quickly spoiled, dandruff and crust. If head lice live person, then you can see their whitish nits stuck to the hair, insects themselves, which move relatively quickly, as well as traces of scratching the skin.
Itching in the lower legs is due to stagnation of blood in the vasculature of the legs.
In psoriasis, the skin itches in limited areas covered psoriatic plaques of red color with easily removable whitish bloom.
In diseases of the liver and bile stasis in the liver in the depths of the skin begin to lay the bile acids that irritate the nerve receptors, causing itching of the skin of the body. Usually in these cases also elevated levels of bilirubin and hepatic enzymes, and the skin itself is colored in different shades of yellowish.
The last-stage renal disease is also often accompanied by itching of the skin of the body due to excess fat in the skin of urea and urochrome.
Itching under certain conditions
During pregnancy in the third trimester because of the toxicity woman often can disturb the body's skin itch. It is believed that the reason for this - the stagnation of bile in the liver.
Senile itching due to the fact that with age, reduced function of the sebaceous glands. Because of this, elderly people suffer from excessive dryness and itching.
During chemotherapy and radiation therapy of cancer patients also suffer from itching due to side effects of drugs and radiation.
The treatment of itching of the skin
Before you implement the recommendations for the treatment of itching of the skin, should be excluded factors that cause it excessive dryness. These include washing hands too hot water and soap, wearing synthetic clothes, emotional distress, use of certain medications (antibiotics, a number of narcotic drugs). Only in case of exceptions to all of these influences the treatment of itching of the skin to be effective. When infectious and parasitic skin lesions should act directly on the cause itchy skin. This local antiseptics and antibiotics, lice and worms.
In allergic origin itching good effect is given antihistamines for use inside and outside in the form of a lotion, ointment, gel. Your doctor may prescribe topical corticosteroids for a short time. The complex treatment of itching of the skin often include tranquilizers and sedatives. When stagnation of bile used means connecting the bile acids (ursodeoxycholic acid medications).