what it is
Fordyce granules or cysts called seborrheic appear as bright spots in the skin sebaceous glands genitalia (labia, penis), groin, nipples, on the lips, in the oral mucosa.
The name comes from the name of granules scientist JA Fordyce, who described these cysts in 1896.
Fordyce granules are not harmful to human health are not transmitted in any kind of contact (including during sex) and are generally considered a normal variant. In most cases, patients seek help only when seborrheic cysts are a cosmetic defect.
Causes Fordyce granules
Until now, quite clearly the reasons are not clear Fordyce granules.
Relations also shedding is observed, called "seborrheic cyst" is probably defective translation. It would be called granules Fordyce sebaceous cyst. Seborrhea patients show changes in the composition of sebum, which leads to clogging of the sebaceous glands and cyst formation, similar in appearance to Fox-Fordyce disease.
Puberty usually gives rise to the appearance of seborrheic cysts. Main scientific opinion is to ensure that the cause of Fordyce granules is that the sebaceous glands in these people are few ektopichno (closer than normal to the upper layer of the dermis and epidermis) or abnormal: in the border of lips, oral mucosa, etc. . A child from birth has the features of the structure and location of the sebaceous glands. During puberty (13-17 years) under the influence of sex hormones (mainly talking about androgens - male sex hormone) is increased activity of the sebaceous glands: saloobrazovaniya increases, which leads to the visible appearance is the reason Fordyce granules.
Also in this group of people is marked hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands. In this connection, they often form cysts (due to narrowing of the lumen of the duct and obstruction of its sebum). Sebum is not displayed, but stored inside the cyst, which leads to an increase in the size of the granules Fordyce and visible cosmetic defects.
How are granules Fordyce
Fox-Fordyce disease like small (approximately 1-2 mm) spots yellowish or yellowish-white papules (small nodules) disposed about portion of the lips, to the oral mucosa, in the shaft of the penis or on the skin of the labia majora. The cysts are painless, often numerous. When pressed on the granules can be allocated a small amount of thick yellow-white content, and the punctate bleeding occurs with the formation of a hematoma around the former member.
Varieties granules Fordyce
There are 2 types of granules Fordyce:
- Pearly penile papules;
- Fox-Fordyce disease.
Pearly penile papules - a variant of the norm. According to different authors found 30% of young men. They are not harmful to health, are not sexually transmitted, do not cause complications. In medicine, the problem is poorly understood due to the ignorance of doctors about the presence of symptoms. Effective treatment is not offered.
The cause of the variety of granules Fordyce is also not clear. Some authors consider the cause of the excess proliferation of the epithelium of the excretory ducts of the glands penis. Others are inclined to think of the proliferation of sites fibroplastic epithelium of the glans penis.
There are pearly penile papules at puberty and point to a sharp increase in androgens in the blood. The peoples who practice circumcision, the frequency of formation of these plaques are extremely small. This is due to the fact that an increased amount of secretions and smegma, annoying due to their physico-chemical properties of the epithelium of the penis and cause Fibroplastic proliferation (proliferation), easily released during the hygiene procedures.
Fox-Fordyce disease is an analogue of pearly papules, only women. Clinic it is absolutely identical to the clinic pearly penile papules. Defeat localized in apocrine sweat glands and is connected (to some extent) with the urogenital apparatus. It is assumed endocrine origin. Localization of lesions: pubic, in the armpits, in the crotch on the labia lips and around the nipples. Manifested most moderate pruritus, increases during menstruation. Long-term course of the disease, often spontaneously permit for 40 years.
What is necessary to differentiate granules Fordyce
Fordyce granules, as well as their varieties (pearly penile papules and Fox-Fordyce disease) is necessary to distinguish between:
- molluscum contagiosum;
- lichen planus;
- focal chronic eczema.
No additional diagnostic methods for diagnosis in addition to external examination and exclusion of other diseases is needed.
Treatment of Fordyce granules
At the moment, all the information on the successful treatment of Fordyce granules are controversial and have an unconfirmed character.
Apply jojoba oil and a cream Retin-A. In their application removes fresh Fordyce granules and prevents new ones.
Old Fordyce granules are treated more successfully by laser cauterization: electrocoagulation or cryotherapy. Surgical removal of the granules Fordyce almost never used, but the most radical method. Separate removal of Fordyce granules by extruding absolutely unacceptable. This "treatment" can lead to inflammation of the skin with subsequent scarring.
Around the border of the lips Cosmetic treatment granules Fordyce is a permanent tattoo, because In some cases, this localization is a cosmetic defect.
By age 30, most elements loses its brightness and bulge becomes less noticeable. This is due to fading of sebaceous gland activity and decreased levels of sex hormones.