Cerebral hypoxia is called medical disorder in which the human brain is not getting enough oxygen. This pathological condition can have serious consequences up to coma and death. It should be noted that very often the death of a person afflicted with this disease is sudden. Symptoms and treatment of cerebral hypoxia in different patients are directly dependent on the reasons that triggered the disease.
Causes of brain hypoxia
As already noted, the very first cause of cerebral hypoxia is a lack of oxygen, supplying this vital organ. This pathology can be triggered by various conditions, for example, rises to a height, work in mines, submarines and so on.. In addition, the lack of oxygen is caused by other factors. Inhalation can often become clogged with mucus, or foreign bodies. Also cause brain hypoxia can act acute shortage of certain vitamins in the human body.
Among other common causes that provoke the emergence of the disease are the following:
- Inhalation of carbon monoxide (for example, during a fire);
- Carbon monoxide poisoning;
- Diseases that violate the functioning of the respiratory muscles (paralysis);
- Strong pressure on the area of the throat (trachea).
Also for reasons of hypoxia brain pathology can be classified this way:
- Broken hypoxia;
- Central tselebralnaya ischemia;
- Global tselebralnaya ischemia;
- Ischemic stroke.
Broken hypoxia of the brain is triggered by insufficient oxygen in the blood and is characterized by dysfunction of the low to medium level of severity.
Central tselebralnaya ischemia is impaired blood flow in a localized area, which could be a consequence of various diseases (for example, an aneurysm, or blood clot, manifested blockage of blood vessels). It is important to note that this condition is in addition most of the clinical heart attacks. Global ischemia is called a complete cessation of blood supply of the brain.
Severe ischemic stroke and is triggered by lack of oxygen due to impaired circulation. This attack covers many areas of the organ.
Symptoms of cerebral hypoxia
Each 100 g of brain from time to time require approximately 3, 3 ml of oxygen. When this amount is not ensured, first begin to manifest symptoms of cerebral hypoxia. They suggest usually some difficulty when performing mental problems and impaired short-term memory of human. In addition, in the initial stage of the disease is often observed state of heightened excitability.
The patient may feel excessive energy and even euphoria, which is accompanied by loss of control over their own movements, unsteady gait, increased heart rate and cognitive impairment in general. Furthermore, for the first phase cerebral hypoxia characteristic color changes of human skin. Most often it becomes pale with a bluish tinge, but sometimes can take as a dark red color. Often a symptom of cerebral hypoxia at this stage is a cold sweat.
The second stage of the disease is characterized by impaired functioning of the human nervous system. The patient usually experiencing frequent bouts of nausea and dizziness, often accompanied by severe vomiting disease. In addition, very often additional symptoms of brain hypoxia in the second stage act blurred vision, frequent blackouts general weakness of the body, and even fainting.
Severe cases of the disease are often accompanied by swelling of the brain, which provokes serious disorder in its activity due to the loss of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes later. If the amount of oxygen to the brain continues to be below normal, human skin loses sensitivity, and then all the organs gradually stop the normal functioning, which often leads to a state of deep coma and death.
Diagnosis and treatment of brain hypoxia
Effective treatment of cerebral hypoxia is possible only after will set the cause of the disease. It is detected on the basis of medical history and diagnosis using various methods:
- Blood tests;
- Electrocardiogram which helps measure the activity of the heart;
- Electroencephalogram, analyzing the functioning of brain cells;
- An echocardiogram;
- Computed tomography of the head;
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the head;
- Pulse oximetry, which helps set the blood oxygen saturation (a measure of the patient is a person below 95%);
- Capnography and other studies of gases exhaled air.
As already mentioned, the treatment of cerebral hypoxia is aimed primarily at eliminating the causes of the disease, therefore, in different cases, the doctor prescribes a different procedure. For example, in the mild form is sometimes quite normal ventilate the room, or outdoor activities, while severe conditions require serious medical procedures. Thus, it is possible to separate the individual treatment of brain hypoxia, depending on its specific form:
- Exogenous hypoxia involves the use of oxygen equipment (oxygen masks, cans, pillows);
- Respiratory hypoxia requires the use of drugs, reducing the work of the respiratory tract. Sometimes appointed ventilation;
- Hematic hypoxia is eliminated via blood transfusions and treatment with oxygen;
- Circulatory hypoxia of the brain involves the use of drugs with cardiotropic effect to improve the microcirculation;
- When tissue hypoxia are issued drugs that restore tissue oxygen utilization, sometimes used ventilation.
In addition, often with a lack of oxygen, doctors recommend taking vitamins and walking outdoors.