Herpes in pregnancy
Herpes - a viral infection characterized by rash grouped blisters on the skin and mucous membranes. The main areas of destruction are the lips, the mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, eyes, vulva. There are two types of herpes simplex virus human: labial (the first type) and genital (the second type). The herpes virus, regardless of its type may be asymptomatic. At the time of infection with the herpes virus of the world population exceeds 75%. The herpes virus of any type is not treatable. However, antiviral therapy is effective at suppressing the virus in the body, prevents the manifestation of its symptoms.
The mechanism of infection with herpes virus
Infection with herpes simplex virus of any type occurs through direct contact with an infected person. When latent herpes during a person can not be aware of the existence of the virus in the body. Infection with herpes labialis can also occur airborne and household by using other people's personal hygiene items, cutlery. When the primary infection in the mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, lips, there are painful blisters filled with a transparent liquid.
Infection with genital herpes are sexually transmitted during vaginal, anal or oral contact. In most cases, the causative agent of genital herpes is genital herpes (in rare cases the first type). Condom in this case does not provide complete protection, since herpes can manifest itself on the skin not covered by a condom.
Exacerbations both genital and oral herpes occur when colds, stress, exhaustion, menstruation and other diseases, as well as the factors contributing to decreased immunity.
Herpes in pregnancy: risks
The herpes virus in pregnant women is second only to the rubella virus (Rubella virus) on the severity of pathologies caused by the fetus. During pregnancy a woman's body undergoes a series of physical and hormonal changes that affect the body's immunity.
Herpes in pregnancy occurs in four clinical forms:
- The primary form of herpes - infection of the body first occurs during pregnancy. The disease is characterized by clinical manifestations of herpes (localized lesions). In the body of the patient are no antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2;
- The first episode of herpes virus - infection of the body occurred before pregnancy asymptomatic, and clinical manifestations of herpes occur for the first time during pregnancy. The patient's body present antibodies to herpes virus, and the first type are absent antibody to herpes virus second type;
- Recurrent herpes in pregnant women - a herpes virus infection occurred before the pregnancy. During pregnancy there is activation of the virus, there are clinical implications. In the analysis of the lesion is determined by the presence of a virus of a type of blood there are antibodies to the herpes virus of the second type;
- Asymptomatic viral spread - intense viral replication and dissemination of the body's cells. This form of herpes is typical for pregnant women with a history of recurrent herpes.
Labial herpes in pregnancy is not harmful to the developing baby in the womb, even with its clinical manifestations in any period of pregnancy. Genital herpes in pregnancy carries a greater risk to the fetus.
For genital herpes in pregnant women causes the following complications:
- fading pregnancy;
- premature birth;
- slowing fetal development;
- hypoplasia of the baby's brain - microcephaly;
- water on the brain child - hydrocephalus.
The herpes virus can be transmitted from pregnant women to the fetus in utero, during childbirth, the postpartum period.
Antenatal (prenatal) infection of the fetus occurs in 5% of cases. Herpes in pregnant women infected before pregnancy, develop antibodies inhibited. Most herpes virus infection of the fetus occurs when the primary form of herpes in pregnancy, when the mother's body has not developed antibodies to the virus.
The largest percentage (75 - 90%) of transmission to children occur during birth when the passage of the fetus through an infected birth canal.
Postpartum child transmission is very rare non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, and direct contact with an infected mother to the active form of the virus and the baby. Please note that any type of herpes virus is not transmitted through breast milk (except when there are cold sores on the nipple and breast mother).
When recurrent form of herpes in pregnancy and timely prophylactic treatment of herpes in pregnant women likely to become infected as a child in utero or during delivery is reduced to 0 - 4%.
Prevention of herpes virus in pregnant women
For the prevention of herpes virus in pregnant women is necessary to conduct tests that detect the presence and type of antibodies to herpes simplex virus when registering. If any of the herpes virus in pregnant women and on the basis of the collected history (between infection with the herpes virus, the number of relapses, triggers that trigger relapse) doctor prescribes preventive treatment, even if there are no clinical symptoms of the virus. It should be remembered that the amount of drugs permitted during pregnancy, it is extremely small. That is why doctors strongly recommend a survey when planning pregnancy and prophylactic treatment of herpes infections that will minimize the clinical manifestations of herpes virus in pregnant women.
If a woman is not a carrier of the herpes virus of any type, it is extremely important to protect themselves from infection with herpes during pregnancy. Due to the fact that the disease in most cases characterized latent asymptomatic, sexual partner may not be aware of the presence of virus in the body. A survey to identify the virus are both partners. In identifying the virus from a partner during pregnancy is necessary to exercise caution during sexual intercourse.
Treatment of herpes in pregnancy
In identifying the virus in pregnant doctor prescribes antiviral therapy, including drugs for internal (pills) and external (ointment) application. In no case shall the treatment of herpes in pregnancy should not be carried out independently. The doctor, based on the clinical picture of the disease, can assign different drugs for the treatment of herpes in pregnant women, among which the most popular are panavir acyclovir. For topical antiviral ointment used for the rapid healing of lesions. In no case can not exceed the dose prescribed drugs for the treatment of herpes in pregnant women in order to avoid negative consequences.