ICP (intracranial pressure) reflects the amount of intracerebral pressure fluid on the brain. In the process of adaptation to changing environmental conditions, this figure can both increase or decrease.
If the ICP for a long time steadily increased, they say the syndrome of intracranial hypertension
Causes of intracranial hypertension
Not all the causes of the syndrome are obvious, so before treatment should be carefully diagnostics and examination of the patient.
The most common syndrome of intracranial hypertension occurs in the following situations:
- Prolonged oxygen deprivation;
- Violation of the outflow of venous blood from the cranial cavity;
- Infection of the brain and its membranes (encephalitis, meningitis);
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
- heart failure;
- Traumatic brain injury;
- Intracranial tumors;
Often the symptoms of intracranial hypertension in children appear
. In this case, the reasons may be as follows:
- Congenital malformations;
- Prolonged fetal hypoxia;
- Pathology of pregnancy and childbirth;
- Intrauterine and neuroinfection.
The symptoms of intracranial hypertension
In adults and children, symptoms of intracranial hypertension is different. In newborns, it manifests profuse regurgitation, which is independent of food intake, frequent and long crying, retarded (later start to sit up and crawl, keep head uncertainly, and so on. D.).
Indirect signs are too prominent forehead bulging fontanelle or the baby. For children with increased intracranial pressure characteristic symptom of "setting sun", in which the eyeballs rolled down to such an extent that the top visible thin white strip of sclera.
In adolescents and children of the senior preschool and primary school age are signs of intracranial hypertension
- Touchiness, tearfulness, drowsiness;
- High blood pressure;
- Flashes Before Your Eyes, squint;
- Cramps and nausea;
- Night and morning headaches;
- A black eye;
- Pain behind the eye sockets.
The symptoms of intracranial hypertension in adults is similar to the picture of the disease in adolescents. In addition to these signs can also be noted decreased sexual function in men and libido in women, meteosensitivity, increased nervousness and fatigue.
Benign intracranial hypertension (DBH)
This is one of the varieties of ICP, which can be attributed to a temporary phenomenon, which is caused by a number of adverse factors.
Status of benign intracranial hypertension is reversible and does not represent a serious danger
Since in this case the compression of the brain is not due to the influence of a foreign body. DBH can cause the following factors:
- Failures in the menstrual cycle;
- Cancellation of certain drugs;
- An overdose of vitamin A and other.
Benign intracranial hypertension is associated with impaired absorption or outflow of cerebrospinal fluid. Patients complain of headaches, worse when moving, and sometimes even when you sneeze or cough. The main difference from the classical hypertension diseases of the brain is that the patient does not appear to be any signs of depression of consciousness, and the state itself does not have any impact and does not require special treatment.
To place a syndrome of intracranial hypertension is necessary to determine the pressure inside the skull
. To do this, the channel of the spine or skull cavity fluid is introduced special needle connected to a manometer. It is unsafe and difficult procedure, so diagnosis often use other objective signs of intracranial hypertension:
- Expansion and tortuosity of veins of the fundus. Despite the fact that this is an indirect sign of increased intracranial pressure, it is reliable enough;
- Violation of the outflow of venous blood, to be ascertained by ultrasound vascular headaches;
- Vacuum medulla ventricles by the edge and extending cavities with fluid. These signs are detected by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and CT (computed tomography);
- Using the data obtained in the study of the brain by echoencephalography.
Accurate diagnosis and determination of the degree of the disease may be a combination of all these methods of research, as well as the differentiation of symptoms of clinical manifestations of ICP.
Methods of treatment of intracranial hypertension
Treating intracranial pressure is directed to reducing the amount of cerebrospinal fluid and depends on the patient
. In benign form prescribed diuretic drugs, which is usually sufficient to alleviate the condition of the patient. In the case where conventional therapy is not acceptable (for example, during business hours), it is recommended to perform special exercises.
Well help light diet, special drinking regime, physical therapy, acupuncture and chiropractic. Sometimes the patient even without the costs of drugs and symptoms of the disease have been held during the first week of correction.
In the treatment of intracranial hypertension due to some other diseases, initially eliminate the cause. So, you first need to get rid of the tumor, which creates pressure in the skull, and then deal with the consequences arising.
In very severe cases, such as blocking cerebrospinal fluid, special patient implanted tube that contribute to the outflow of excess cerebrospinal fluid.
Intracranial hypertension can cure only when completely eliminated causes for this pathology. When properly chosen therapy improvement observed within 3-5 days after the start of treatment.