General characteristics of the disease
Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's phenomenon - a rare disease of the arteries of the extremities. It manifests itself in vasospastic (spontaneous) reduction of vessel walls. As a result, a person is formed bleeding site - ischemia. Long artery vasospasm leads to a change of color fabrics limbs - one of the main symptoms of Raynaud's disease.
Raynaud's disease is localized, usually in the feet or hands of man. The defeat of the arteries is usually a two-way symmetrical. Risk factors that provokes Raynaud's disease include frequent hypothermia (hypothermia of the lower limbs), trauma, systemic intense pressure on a limb, as well as endocrine disorders and severe emotional stress. Raynaud's disease often affects women under 40 years. The disease often occurs in people who suffer from migraines.
Raynaud's disease to be distinguished from Raynaud's syndrome. Development of the limbs vasoconstriction in chronic scleroderma and other disorders of connective tissue indicates Raynaud's syndrome. From Raynaud's disease, he is characterized by a late onset of symptoms, manifestations of asymmetry of vasoconstriction and the combined mandatory course with other vascular or autoimmune disease.
The symptoms of Raynaud's disease
In the development of Raynaud's disease usually distinguished 3 stages with characteristic signs of the disease. The symptoms of Raynaud's disease is the first stage of a significant increase in the tone of the vessel walls. Hypertonus causes a momentary spasm of arteries, blanching of the skin and severe pain - a few important symptoms of Raynaud's disease at this stage. After a brief attack of the pain goes away, and color re-limb becomes natural.
In the second stage of the disease the symptoms of Raynaud's first stage joins pronounced cyanosis, marble skin color, swelling of the extremities. This stage of the disease is also accompanied by intense pain during an attack. The first two stages of Raynaud's disease can develop 3-5 years.
Symptom Raynaud's third stage - the appearance on the final stretch necrotic tissue. Because of circulatory disorders limb wounds do not heal them. At this time the possible accession of secondary infection, and sepsis.
Diagnosis of Raynaud's disease
Diagnosis of Raynaud's disease includes assessment of the following criteria:
- the level of circulatory disorders in the limbs,
- symmetrical sections with vasoconstriction,
- the presence of other diseases phlebological,
- duration of symptoms of Raynaud's disease for at least 2 years.
At the time of diagnosis of Raynaud's disease is carried capillaroscopy nail bed of the patient. It allows you to visualize and study the functional and structural changes in the arteries of the extremities.
Another stage of diagnosis of Raynaud's disease - cold test to assess the state of their limbs after immersion in water at 10 ° C for 2-3 minutes.
Differential diagnosis of Raynaud's disease involves the exclusion of 70 autoimmune diseases and phlebological which may be accompanied by Raynaud's syndrome.
Treatment for Raynaud's disease
When the diagnosis of "Raynaud's phenomenon" the main focus is on the treatment of the underlying disease. Treatment of Raynaud's disease occurs in another direction, namely in relieving symptoms and preventing causes of disease episodes.
In the first step Raynaud only conservative treatment. The attack of vasospasm can be easily removed with the help of warm baths, wraps, massages the patient portion of the limb. Drug treatment of Raynaud's disease is the reception of vasodilator drugs. The patient is recommended to rule out the possibility of hypothermia, trauma and limb as possible not to worry.
At the stage of ulceration and tissue necrosis patient is assigned a local wound healing therapy. Drug treatment of Raynaud's may last a few years, until the period when the attacks of vasospasm limbs are not sensitive to vasodilators.
In this case, it is recommended surgical treatment have Raynaud's disease - sympathectomy. It consists in removing or relieving nerve fibers of the sympathetic trunk, causing spasm of the arteries. The least traumatic surgical view of Raynaud's disease is considered an endoscopic sympathectomy. During her patient under general anesthesia in the superimposed clip sympathetic trunk in the chest or neck.
Auxiliary treatment of Raynaud's disease - sessions of plasmapheresis to remove from the patient's blood of harmful toxic and metabolic components.