One manifestation of the paradoxical immune response is allergic rhinitis, otherwise it is called seasonal. The disease is also known as hay fever because the symptoms of health disorders are manifested not only in contact with the pollen, but also with dried grass. The primary contact with the allergen occurs at the level of the upper respiratory tract, nasal mucosal cells. Because of the specific reaction of the body that has a genetic basis, to certain substances of organic nature are synthesized antibodies - immunoglobulins Group E. They bind foreign particles, forming complexes antigen-antibody. Repeated contact with foreign particles occurs violent reaction. Since immune complexes are deposited in the cells of the nose, especially when such reaction develops allergic rhinitis all of its manifestations.
Allergic rhinitis, development mechanism
At constant contact with allergens state of chronic inflammation in the nasal cavity provokes acute throughout the year. When allergic rhinitis is only seasonal, aggravation "disappear" after the end of the pores of certain flowering plants. Most often, the source of this condition is not pollen, and birch in the period when the leaves bloom.
The most common allergic rhinitis develops in spring and autumn - it is connected to another common allergen - microfungi that move freely through the air.
Provoke attacks of sneezing, runny nose and other symptoms of allergic rhinitis, non-specific stimuli - triggers. The chemical composition they do not have anything to do with allergens, but annoying receptors of the nasal mucosa. In a state of hypersensitivity of the nervous system immune response should be immediate. Trigerrom allergic rhinitis can serve the following factors:
- Tobacco smoke, regardless of the brand of cigarettes;
- The exhaust gases of motor transport;
- Cold air in the transition from a warm place;
- The sharp smell of perfume funds or household chemicals.
The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses facial skull resonance and tracheobronchial tree form a single anatomical and physiological systems. All these bodies are lined with the same epithelium. Therefore, allergic rhinitis often accompany the following illnesses:
- Polypoid rhinosinusitis;
- Asthmatic bronchitis;
- bronchial asthma.
If not promptly treated allergic rhinitis develop such conditions. And not as a co-morbidities or complications, but evidence on the prevalence of the inflammatory process.
Allergic rhinitis symptoms
The clinical picture of the disease symptoms of allergic rhinitis has the following:
The main manifestations are:
- Watery nasal discharge;
- Paroxysmal sneezing for no apparent reason, mainly in the morning;
- Burning sensation in the nose, itching, spread throughout the nasopharynx;
- Breathing through the mouth due to nasal congestion, snoring, wheezing, decreased sense of smell, twang.
Allergic rhinitis is a characteristic feature of "allergic salute." A child holds his hand on the tip of the nose from the bottom up, fighting the itch. As a result of this movement there are scratches and scratches on his nose, formed transverse nasal crease.
Additional symptoms of allergic rhinitis are not in all patients, but there are, in most cases. These are the following symptoms:
- Lacrimation, photophobia, dark circles under the eyes;
- Feeling of cod in the ears when swallowing, hearing loss;
- Sore throat;
- Nosebleeds due to mechanical irritation of the mucous membranes;
- Skin irritation of the nose and wings of nasolabial triangle.
Common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, non-specific, but always accompany the disease:
- Irritability, lethargy;
- Loss of appetite, combined with nausea;
Much less allergic rhinitis accompanied by fever. This occurs in those cases where the lesion of the epithelium propagate the bacteria. Children showing signs of indigestion due to ingestion of abundant content from the nasopharynx.
Allergic rhinitis, for the treatment of
The main purpose of the treatment of allergic rhinitis is prevention of asthma. To do this, you must establish control over the symptoms, as well as to neutralize all related disease.
Treat allergic rhinitis should be clear on the program, which includes the following activities:
- Eliminates contact with the allergen;
- Anti-inflammatory therapy;
- Symptomatic therapy;
- Hypoallergenic diet;
- Immune therapy.
In cases where the identification of allergic factors is difficult, it is necessary for the patient to create the surroundings close to sterility. Frequent cleaning of the room, air-conditioned, humidified air contribute to the elimination of reasons for developing allergic rhinitis, household chemicals, it should be chosen with great care. It is best to use ordinary water.
Anti-inflammatory treatment of allergic rhinitis held hormones - glucocorticoids.
For the recommended withdrawal symptoms last generation antihistamines, as they have no side effects, central nervous system depressants.
In perennial allergic rhinitis power varies only in those cases where the disease is combined with a food allergy. When seasonal manifestation of disease are eliminated from the diet of plant foods that have an affinity with allergens.
Immune therapy is carried out by the physician allergist.