General characteristics of the disease
Atrophy of the optic nerve - a serious eye disease with a significant reduction of visual function of the patient. Atrophy of the optic nerve can provoke inflammation or degeneration of the optic nerve, its compression or injury leading to nerve tissue damage.
The causes of optic nerve atrophy neurological, infectious, phlebological etiologies include brain tumors, meningitis, hypertension, profuse bleeding, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Destruction of nerve fibers of the optic nerve can also cause genetic factors or intoxication.
In the development of optic nerve atrophy occurs gradually destruction of nerve fibers and their replacement with connective tissue and glial, and vascular occlusion is then responsible for blood supply to the optic nerve. As a result, the patient is reduced visual acuity occurs pallor of optic disc.
Symptoms of optic nerve atrophy
Optic Atrophy Symptoms depend on the form of the disease. An indication of the primary optic nerve atrophy, as an independent disease, are clear borders disc pallor. This interferes with the normal excavation (deepening) of the disc. In primary atrophy of the optic nerve it takes the shape of a saucer with a narrowed arterial vessels of the retina.
Symptoms of optic nerve atrophy secondary forms include blurred the boundaries of the disk, vasodilatation, prominirovanie (bulging) its central part. However, we must note that at a late stage of secondary optic atrophy symptoms are absent: the vessels are narrowed, the boundaries are smoothed disk, the disk is flattened.
Hereditary optic atrophy, for example, Leber's disease, optic neuritis manifested. So it called site inflammation of the optic nerve located behind the eyeball. Visual acuity at the same time decreases gradually but marked pain during eye movements.
Symptomatic optic atrophy on the background of breakthrough bleeding (uterine or gastrointestinal) is a sharp narrowing of the blood vessels of the retina and loss of sight of the bottom half.
Symptoms of optic nerve atrophy in the compression of the tumor or injury depends on the location of damage to the optic disc. Often, even in the most serious injuries of quality gradually decreases.
Partial atrophy of the optic nerve is characterized by the lowest functional and organic changes. The term "partial atrophy of the optic nerve" means that the destructive process began, it touched on only a portion of the optic nerve and stopped. Symptoms of partial atrophy of the optic nerve can be very different and have different expressions. For example, a narrowing of the field of view of up to tunnel syndrome, the presence of cattle (blind spots), reduced visual acuity.
Diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy
With a significant pallor of the optic nerve disease diagnosis is simple. Otherwise it requires a more detailed study of visual function of the patient by means of tests to determine the field of view, radiological and fluorescence-angiographic studies.
Atrophy of the optic nerve also indicates a physiological change in the electrical sensitivity of the optic nerve, and increased intraocular pressure in glaucomatous disease forms.
Treatment of optic nerve atrophy
The most favorable prognosis in the treatment of partial atrophy of the optic nerve. The main standard in the treatment of the disease - the use of drugs to improve blood supply to the optic nerve, vitamins and physiotherapy.
If the decrease in visual acuity caused by compression, treatment of optic atrophy primarily neurosurgical, and then to apply the methods of magnetic and laser stimulation, electro and physiotherapy.
The main objective of the treatment of optic nerve atrophy - to stop the destruction of the optic nerve tissue and maintain existing visual acuity. Fully restore visual function, it is usually impossible. But without treatment, atrophy of the optic nerve can lead to total blindness of the patient.
Optic nerve atrophy in children
Many congenital eye disease diagnosed in rёbёnka at the first examination in the hospital more: glaucoma, cataracts, ptosis of the upper eyelid, etc. Atrophy of the optic nerve in children is unfortunately not one of them, as it is often hidden within, without external visible symptoms of the disease. Therefore, the diagnosis of complete destruction of the optic nerve or partial atrophy of the optic nerve in children is set, as a rule, the second month of a child's life during a routine examination by an ophthalmologist.
The doctor checks the visual acuity of the newborn, the quality of fixation and the ability to monitor the child for the toy to move. In the same way it is determined by the field of view grudnichka. If in such a way to find out visual acuity is not possible, then the study of the reaction of the brain to visual stimuli.
With the help of ophthalmic equipment and drugs that enhance pupil studied fundus baby. Upon detection of clouding optic disc diagnosed "optic atrophy". In children, the disease being treated in the same way as adults, with the appointment of vasodilator therapy nootropics to improve the metabolic processes in the brain and stimulating vision of courses of light, laser, electric and magnetic effects.