Dry eye syndrome
Dry eye syndrome - a violation of wetting of the cornea, causing it to dry out and lose its function. In a normal eye is constantly moist, this is one of the conditions for its normal functioning. With a lack of moisture develops so-called dry eye syndrome, which has a number of characteristic features, as well as the terrible consequences.
It can develop as a primary, independent disease, but can be a symptom of another disease, but whatever the cause of dry eye syndrome, it can lead to partial or complete loss of vision, and therefore requires close attention.
The mechanism of the development of dry eye syndrome
Dry eye is due to existing in the eye of the protective film covering the cornea and tear fluid produced, which it is constantly wet. The protective film consists of three layers:
- The surface layer - is formed by lipids, ie fats which protect the film from moisture evaporation.
- The middle layer - consists of the lacrimal fluid, his task nutrition, protection of the cornea and visual function defined as the presence of this layer changes the refractive
- Slimy or mucin layer - tight to the cornea, protecting it and serve as a basis for the other two layers of protective film.
In addition, the good eye is constantly contains a small amount of tear fluid, which bathes the blinking at him. Lacrimal fluid has a complex composition, produced a whole group of glands, 2 ml daily quiet emotional state, because, as you know, in the case of emotional turmoil production of tear fluid increases dramatically. Furthermore lacrimal fluid generation system, there is a system of outflow of excess moisture from the eye. With excess lacrimal tears drain into the nasal cavity, it becomes very noticeable when a person cries - he always appear runny nose. The system also allows the outflow of tear fluid updated and perform the function of the power of the cornea.
Causes of dry eye syndrome
Failure at any stage of production or outflow of tear fluid can lead to dry eye syndrome. This can be a violation slezoobrazovaniya low quality formed film (e.g., thinning of the lipid layer, which leads to its drying), non-uniform distribution of the protective film on the cornea.
The cause of dry eye syndrome can be a variety of circumstances and disease.
The most common causes of dry eye syndrome are:
- beriberi, especially metabolic fat-soluble vitamins (A);
- diseases of the endocrine glands, ie endocrine diseases;
- systemic disease that affects the connective tissue;
- hormonal failure, such as during menopause;
- incorrectly chosen contact lenses;
- certain drugs including antihypertensives;
- violation of the Computer. In this case, dry eye syndrome has several synonyms: office eye syndrome, computer eye syndrome, etc.
- poor environmental conditions.
Age may also serve, if not as the cause of dry eye syndrome, then as a factor contributing to its development, as the older age group, the more cases of the disease. At the age of 40 after years of dry eye syndrome are subject to 30% of people. As a result, less stable hormonal and directly dependent on the production of tear fluid hormones in women symptoms of dry eye syndrome occur more often than in men.
Symptoms of dry eye syndrome
Symptoms of dry eye syndrome include the following features:
- redness of the eyes, especially after class, demanding their stress;
- burning sensation in the eyes and cramps;
- increased tearing, which at first glance this seems paradoxical. In fact, it is a compensatory mechanism triggered by the body to eliminate the dryness of the cornea;
- painful reaction to instillation into the eye drops of any composition, not even contain any irritants
- poor tolerance of wind, smoke, conditioned air.
According to the degree of symptoms of dry eye syndrome have identified a number of clinical forms of the disease: mild, moderate, severe and very severe.
Diagnosis of dry eye syndrome
Diagnosis of dry eye syndrome is carried out in several directions: examination of the cornea with the definition of dry foci, which are subject to special staining solutions. Then examines the products lacrimal fluid using special probes, and its outflow. Conduct a full eye examination including a laboratory study of the composition of the tear fluid. If you suspect that the cause of dry eye syndrome can serve as a systemic or endocrine disease, carried out respectively immunological and endocrinological examination.
The treatment of dry eye syndrome
Depending on the cause of dry eye syndrome, treatment may be undertaken by one of the following ways, or a combination thereof:
- stimulating production of tear fluid;
- obstruction of the outflow of tear fluid;
- artificial replenishment of the tear fluid;
- reduction of evaporation of tear fluid.
The most effective treatment for dry eye syndrome in the middle and it is a severe obstruction of the outflow of tear fluid. This can be achieved in two ways - surgically, under which a obturation lacrimal glands, quite simply, their intersection, causing the fluid does not go into the nasal cavity, and orthopedic - manufacturer of special obturator, a miniature "plug" which blocks the tear duct. The second method is more preferable now for the treatment of dry eye syndrome, since the first, does not cause irreversible changes in the second current generation silicone is used for production of the obturator, causes no allergic reactions and, thirdly, does not require surgery .
In some cases, when you do not reveal any pathology, and drying of the cornea is the result of wrong organized work with a computer or books, carried out the treatment of dry eye drops, so-called artificial tears. Such a drop in the dry eye syndrome is recommended to bury regularly during work on average every 2-3 hours, followed by five-minute breaks in employment.
It should be noted that even in mild cases, seemingly minor, be sure to carry out the treatment of dry eye syndrome, as otherwise it can lead to serious diseases of the cornea and conjunctiva, and subsequently to the loss of vision.