Vitamin B1 refers to a group of water soluble vitamins.
It was first isolated in 1910 by a Japanese scientist Y. Suzuki. Vitamin B1 is essential for the normal processes of development and growth, regulates the functions of the digestive, nervous and cardiovascular systems, and also participates in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.
Vitamin B1 is not deposited in the body for future use and, therefore, its reserves must be replenished regularly. It has no toxic effects since its excess is easily derived from the waste products out. The body comes from food and synthesized by microflora of the large intestine. Easily destroyed by heat treatment of food products.
The biological role of vitamin B1
Vitamin B1 has on the nervous system regulating effect. Besides taking an active part in the processes of water and salt, protein, carbohydrate, fat and energy metabolism. Lack of vitamin B1 leads to accumulation in muscle cells pyruvic and lactic acid, which lowers the synthesis of acetylcholine and interferes with the normal functioning of the digestive and nervous systems.
Vitamin B1 optimizes the activity of the brain, improves memory, mental ability and mood. Has an impact on growth, actively participates in the process of hematopoiesis. Due to its antioxidant properties reduce the negative impact on the human body a variety of toxic substances, including alcohol and tobacco, slows the aging process.
Vitamin B1 supports the muscle tone of the digestive system, blood vessels, reduces the symptoms of seasickness.
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of Vitamin B1 for hair. With a lack of this vitamin hair begins to fade, thinning and becoming very brittle. In addition, vitamin deficiencies of vitamin B1 is often one of the main causes of dandruff.
Daily adult must receive not less than 0, 5 mg of vitamin B1 per thousand calories. During illness or during convalescence, diseases of the thyroid and high physical stress the need for vitamin B1 is greatly increased.
When oral contraceptives, antibiotics and medicines, which contain sulfur, a decrease in the body's levels of Vitamin B1. To vitamin B1 could go into its active form requires the presence of a sufficient amount of magnesium.
Hypovitaminosis vitamin B1
A lack of vitamin B1 is shown by the following symptoms:
- Irritability, tearfulness, fatigue, depression;
- The deterioration of motor coordination;
- Nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea;
- Shortness of breath during exercise.
With substantial lack of vitamin B1 (beriberi) developing a disease called beriberi. It is manifested symptoms of the nervous system, the emergence of paralysis, muscle atrophy and severe cardiovascular failure.
An overdose of vitamin B1
For the development of this vitamin gipervitaminoznogo condition is usually not typical. However, vitamin B1 in ampules for injectable administration can lead to the development of allergic reactions, since large doses may tend to develop nonspecific mast cell degranulation.
The vitamin B1 in food
The sources of vitamin B1 are many products of vegetable or animal origin:
- Bread and bread baked from wheat flour;
- Groats (buckwheat, oatmeal, raw rice);
- Sunflower seeds and nuts;
- Asparagus, brussels sprouts, broccoli;
- Soy beans;
- Currants, blueberries, strawberries, rose hips;
- Prunes, plums, raisins;
- Spinach, nettle, chamomile, sorrel, clover, mint, parsley;
- Meat and meat products (brains, kidneys, liver);
- Fish and seafood.
It should be remembered that under the influence of heat treatment vitamin B1 in food is reduced.
Vitamin B1 in ampules
With insufficient dietary intake of vitamin B1 and vitamin deficiencies develop symptoms of vitamin deficiency or prescribe administration of vitamin B1 in ampoules (injection). In addition, the indications for this vitamin are:
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system - endarteritis, myocarditis, chronic circulatory insufficiency;
- Neurological disorders - asthenovegetative syndrome, peripheral paralysis, polyneuritis, neuritis;
- Mental illness - combined therapy of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, psychosis;
- Diseases of the digestive system - stomach ulcer, gastritis, enterocolitis, chronic pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, a disease of the operated stomach.
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of Vitamin B1 for hair and skin. Therefore, it is widely used in the treatment of many dermatological diseases (seborrhea, psoriasis, pruritus, pyoderma).