Stretching (or "stretching") - is a system of physical exercises aimed at stretching of individual groups of muscles, ligaments and tendons. The name comes from the English word «stretching», which means "stretching", and fully reflects the essence and the main purpose of the complex.
In a separate area stretching began to allocate relatively recently - in the middle of the last century, and the official recognition and justification in the writings of scholars, he was only twenty years later.
The system is used as a stretching exercise self-direction, and individual exercises are included in almost all training and recreation centers.
Types of Stretching
There are several classification systems stretching exercises.
According to the degree of influence on muscle stretching is divided into soft and deep.
When the soft stretching muscles are stretched to their normal length. Mean exercise time is approximately 30 seconds.
The purpose of deep stretching is stretching the muscles to the new length. Thus the execution of each exercise can take from 2 to 5 minutes.
Depending on the way to distinguish between a static exercise, passive, dynamic, active, ballistic isometric, proprioceptive neuromuscular stretching.
Static stretching is characterized by smooth and slow (several minutes) performing each exercise. Stretching takes place under the influence of their own body weight. In this case, the basis is not stretching muscle tension and its relaxation. This type of stretching exercise has a beneficial effect on the muscles, joints and soft develops stretch the tendon. Static stretching is recommended to persons with a minimum of physical preparation, or its complete absence.
Active stretching assigned to work with a particular isolated muscle, which in this case may be in the passive state, the very same stretch is due to the load on the surrounding muscle groups. Active stretching contributes not only to stretch the muscles and tendons, and increase joint mobility.
Dynamic stretching is also a fairly safe mode. It is based on stretching the muscles through the change of voltage relaxation. Dynamic stretching compared with static considered to be more effective, since the exercises going on with gradual increase in range of motion.
Ballistic stretching refers to the insecure mind, as it is based on the sharp movements executed with great amplitude and a substantial rate. The basic exercises are flexion and extension of the trunk and flapping his arms and legs.
Engage in a dynamic and ballistic stretching is possible only under supervision of an experienced coach.
Isometric stretching. In this case, the stretching is carried out at the expense of muscle tension and is produced in four phases: tension - relaxation - stretching - fixation. This type of stretching be more productive, but it requires much effort and adequate physical preparation.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular stretching ("proprioception" - deep sensitivity). This type of stretching is similar to the isometric, but involves another person at the stage of stress. Very often, this other person is the manager of the rehabilitation center, as this type of stretching exercises practiced for therapeutic purposes. Workouts help restore mobility in individual joints and limbs generally impaired as a result of injury, illness or surgery.
The therapeutic effect of stretching exercises
- Joints become greater mobility, increases elasticity and flexibility of the muscles.
- It improves posture.
- Reduces cellulite deposits.
- Through stretching relieves pain associated with permanent nervous tension or pinching of the nerve roots.
- The alternation of tension and relaxation has a positive effect on the nervous system, helping to eliminate the consequences of stress.
- Accelerate blood circulation, which provides additional feeding oxygen to all the body's muscles, including the heart.
- Enhanced lymph flow, eliminated congestion in the lymphatic system.
Contraindications and restrictions to employment by stretching
Despite all the benefits and availability of stretching exercises, there are contraindications to them as to any kind of physical activity:
- recently transferred fractures;
- chronic joint diseases in exacerbation. Once remission, exercise not only contraindicated, but even useful;
- severe curvature of the spine and instability;
- recently transferred sprains. If stretching is able to deal with injured ligaments, the recent dislocation can become a habitual;
- atherosclerosis, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis and other diseases of the cardiovascular system associated with increased thrombus. For this reason, caution should be taken to training stretching for varicose veins;
- contraindicated in hypertension complexes, including the slopes;
- osteochondrosis is a contraindication against twisting exercises. All other stretching exercises on the contrary, due to the stretching of muscles of hips, pelvis, shoulders and back and abdominal strengthening will facilitate the state;
- active workout stretching is not recommended after an intense strength training. After a serious power load on the joints are allowed only light stretching exercises to relax the muscles.
Terms performing stretching exercises
Preheat the stretching before exercise, it improves blood circulation and oxygen supply to muscles.
Avoid sudden movements during the exercise.
Proper implementation of stretching exercise is not accompanied by pain. You should feel muscle pain and not therein.
Stretching should begin with big muscles, it will increase blood flow to the small, more vulnerable muscles.
Focus on the muscles that stretch at this point, without being distracted to anything extraneous.
Pause maximally extended position should be about 10 - 30 seconds. If at the end of this time, the voltage will fall, so stretching was too strong. Stop and start the exercise again.
Breathe deeply, it relaxes the muscles and helps to stretch. All the slopes begin to exhale and stretch - breath.
When any of the stretching exercises, take a strong position.
Pay particular attention to stretching those muscles that you load more and more. For example, are fond of jogging is to focus on the quadriceps and hip flexors myshtsah-.
Proceed carefully and slowly, gain amplitude of stretching exercises in small portions.
Stretching exercise is often called the "cat's fitness." Have patience, practice stretching regularly and you will reach the cat's flexibility and grace.