Gastroscopy - a type of endoscopy, in which to inspect the mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, duodenum). Other alternatives are the names of EGD (fibrogastroduodenoscopy), endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) fibrogastroscopy. We are talking about the same survey, despite the variety of names. Make a gastroscopy can be prescribed by a doctor, it is not necessary to appoint a such a study.
Currently stomach gastroscopy performed using a flexible fibrogastroscopy inside which is placed a fiber-optic system. Because of the mobility of the distal (end) department apparatus may inspect all parts of the lining of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Gastroscopy without pain is a reality. This procedure can be both diagnostic and therapeutic in nature. Endoscopic operations on the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasingly popular, and sometimes they avoid open surgical intervention (e.g., gastric ulcer bleeding can be stopped during gastroscopy by various methods - coagulation clipping).
Make a gastroscopy stomach possible on an outpatient basis, the survey is widely done almost anywhere (clinics, private centers). The most frequently assigned gastroscopy about patient complaints of nausea, pain in the upper abdomen, changes in appetite. The survey is superior to all the radiological diagnostic accuracy methods allows for biopsy and therapeutic manipulation. You can run a gastroscopy children of all ages.
Indications for endoscopy
Indications to this survey are wide enough, if any suspicion of disease of the digestive tract justified the appointment of a gastroscopy.
- Pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, heartburn;
- Signs of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract (vomiting blood, loss of consciousness, a characteristic chair - melena);
- Signs of poor passage of food during swallowing;
- Suspected Cancer process (anemia, weight loss, lack of appetite);
- Other diseases of the digestive tract, where it is necessary to know the state of the gastric mucosa (eg, acute pancreatitis).
Contraindications to perform gastroscopy depend on the order in which the research is carried out. When emergency gastroscopy (for example, excessive bleeding) are practically no contraindications and can be performed even in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
For routine gastroscopy contraindications are:
- Severe heart failure, acute myocardial infarction;
- Acute ischemic stroke;
- Severe respiratory failure;
- The recovery period after acute myocardial infarction, or stroke;
- Aortic aneurysm, cardiac aneurysm, carotid sinus aneurysm;
- Cardiac arrhythmias;
- Hypertensive crisis;
- Severe mental disorders.
In the presence of contraindications appropriate specialist advice is required to assess the likelihood of negative consequences from the studies and to assess its feasibility.
Preparing for a gastroscopy stomach
To conduct the study requires the condition that it is carried out on an empty stomach. The last meal should be at least 6-8 hours before gastroscopy. The most common procedure is carried out in the morning, so it is enough that morning, the patient does not eat or drink. If you have dentures need to be removed prior to the study. In the study, it is important to properly assess the mucosa of the digestive tract, so training in endoscopy of the stomach is very important for the patient. For 2-3 hours before the examination is prohibited smoking. In the case of gastroscopy under anesthesia fasting period may be extended for up to 10-12 hours.
Gastroscopy without pain - the wish of all patients. Despite the fact that the pain during the study are practically absent, the majority of patients waiting their manipulation. Typically gastroscopy gastric performed after irrigation solution pharynx local anesthetic (lidocaine), this is done to reduce the gag reflex of the patient. Sometimes, at the request of the patient (or indication) may conduct research under general anesthesia (intravenous), but gastroscopy under anesthesia can be performed on an outpatient basis is not in all patients.
Technique of gastroscopy
To carry out the manipulation of the patient is placed on a table in the left lateral position, with legs slightly bent, the back should be straightened. Gastroscopy under general anesthesia and can be performed in the supine position. After the introduction of gastroscope into the oral cavity of the patient is asked to do a swallowing movement that facilitates the promotion of the device into the esophagus. In order to suppress the gag reflex patient should be observed calm deep breathing. Through the gastroscope supplied air to straighten the folds of the stomach lining and fully examine all the mucous membrane. Fear of suffocation during a gastroscopy stomach completely unfounded, as the breathing of the patient did not interfere.
The doctor carefully inspect the inner surface of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, and, if necessary, will take a biopsy (a tissue). Therapeutic manipulation carried out by introducing into the channel of the endoscope tools. Thus, it is possible to remove polyps (growths and submucosal) of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum, to stop the bleeding from ulcers (acute and chronic), apply a ligature on the varicose veins of the esophagus, remove foreign bodies from the cavity of the stomach.
Implementation of children gastroscopy has a number of features. The mucous membrane of their thin, vulnerable, rich in blood vessels, the muscle layer of the walls of poorly developed. Therefore, children are special endoscopes smaller diameter (of 6-9 mm). In the younger age groups (up to 6 years) performed a gastroscopy under anesthesia. Children older than 6 years, general anesthesia is not required. Indications for anesthesia is a severe condition of the child or a significant length of time for study. Preparing for a gastroscopy the stomach in children has no differences compared to adults.