What is X-ray
Radiography is an examination of the internal organs and systems of the human body through their projection on a special paper or film using X-rays. Radiography is the first method of medical imaging, which allowed imaging of tissues and organs, to explore them in a person's life. This method of diagnosis was opened in 1895, when German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen registered property of X-rays to darken a photographic plate.
Due to the fact that X-ray study involves three-dimensional objects that are represented on the X-ray sensitive film is flat, it is necessary to take pictures at least two projections in order to detect the localization of the foci.
The advantages of X-ray diffraction are as follows:
- ease of access and wide;
- lack of special training for the majority of research;
- relatively low cost, with the exception of studies to obtain the results in digital form;
- no operator-based, allowing you to use the data on advice from various experts.
Although widespread, radiography has its drawbacks:
- the image is "frozen", making it difficult to assess organ function;
- the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on the organism being studied;
- Low informative value in comparison with the modern tomographic method that is explained by superimposition of anatomical structures projection on the X-ray image;
- the need to use contrast agents in soft tissue radiography.
This diagnostic method allows us to investigate the lymph nodes, blood vessels, airways, lungs, heart. Usually chest x-ray involves two shots, by the chest and in the back, but in the case of severe patient's condition and let one shot. Prior to this study no special training is required, however, because of the negative impact of radiation on the fetus radiography during pregnancy is not recommended.
Chest radiography is appointed in the following cases:
- to determine the cause of cough, shortness of breath or chest pain;
- in such cardiac problems such as heart failure or enlarged heart;
- for diagnosis of lung cancer, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, pneumothorax;
- to detect rib fractures, lung damage and problems that cause pulmonary edema;
- in order to identify foreign objects in the lungs, respiratory tract and stomach.
X-ray of the spine
Pictures obtained by radiography of the spine, allow us to determine the structure and bone density, displacement of the vertebrae, the presence of erosions reveal uneven contours and areas of thinning or thickening of the cortical bone. This research should be carried out in the following cases:
- for the diagnosis of deformation, subluxations, fractures and displacement of the vertebrae;
- to detect degenerative changes of the spine, infectious diseases and congenital malformations;
- to assess the condition of the spine in metabolic disorders and arthritis;
- in order to identify lesions of the intervertebral discs.
Spine X-ray does not require any special preparation, it is only necessary during the study strictly follow the doctor's instructions, taking the desired position on the x-ray table and holding your breath at some point.
Your doctor may order X-rays of the lungs when a patient has symptoms such as coughing up blood, dry cough, fatigue, fever, weight loss, pain in the lungs or back. This study allows to diagnose tuberculosis, pneumonia, fungal tumor, or lung disease, and to identify foreign bodies.
Usually, radiography is to receive two shots - from the front and side radiographs. Young children at the time of this study should be in the supine position, and the doctor in evaluating the radiographs should consider changing the proportions and features of the blood supply to the lungs when finding a person in a horizontal position on the back. No special training is not intended radiography.
This method of diagnosis is generally used for chronic or prolonged arthritis, as well as in cases of suspected deforming osteoarthritis. For other rheumatic diseases in most cases the joints radiography reveals symptoms much later than laboratory testing or observation of the overall clinical picture. However, X-rays is still needed, they will compare the results of further studies with the original data.
In the case study of symmetrical joints X-ray is done in direct and lateral projections, and the diagnosis of diseases of the shoulder or hip joints require another additional perspective - oblique.
To detect these diseases pneumoarthrography analyzed in the following order:
- the outline of the joint space - its restriction indicates the initial stage of rheumatoid arthritis;
- articular ends of the bones - their bone structure, value, shape, size;
- state periarticular soft tissues;
- cortical circuits.
In assessing joint radiography clinical picture is taken into account, the duration of the disease and the patient's age.
X-ray of the skull
Surprisingly, this method is little information in the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, but at the same time, the X-ray of the skull is advisable in the following cases:
- to identify skull fractures;
- for the diagnosis of pituitary tumors;
- the detection of congenital malformations;
- for the diagnosis of certain metabolic and endocrine diseases.
Send to X-ray the skull doctor can if symptoms such as loss of consciousness, dizziness, pain in the head, hormonal disorders.
Typically, this research is performed in five projections - left and right side, anteroposterior, posteroanterior and axial. No special preparations, X-rays of the skull does not imply only requirement - the absence of any metal objects (jewelry, dentures, eyeglasses) in the irradiation zone.
In addition to these types of radiography, the same method can be investigated the stomach and duodenum, gall bladder and bile duct, colon, various departments of the peripheral skeleton, abdomen, uterus and fallopian tube patency, as well as teeth.