The color of human skin depends on the content of melanin therein. Moreover, the more the substance is, the darker the skin. Meanwhile, what often happens is that in certain areas of the body comes increased production of melanin, which can lead to hyperpigmentation. Generally it is expressed in the form of moles, freckles, spots and hormonal can occur in a person of any age and gender.
Causes and treatment of skin pigmentation
Most often, liver spots occur with age or from the effects of solar radiation. When ultraviolet rays fall on the exposed skin, damage cells melanocytes producing melanin. Subsequently, these cells are traumatized form dark areas on the skin. Treatment of pigmentation is necessary first of all, because in some cases the spots may develop into malignant tumors.
Sometimes, when the birth of a person already has on his body from benign melanoblast. They are also called birthmarks. Usually they have light or dark brown color and slightly raised above the skin. Remove moles, if it brings inconvenience, only after consulting your doctor.
Mainly in children and adults meet freckles - the most harmless form of pigmentation. These small patches of golden or brown often occur in susceptible individuals to their formation - red or blond. Treatment of pigmentation on the face is skin whitening by various means or peeling.
Other types of pigment spots:
- Lentigo - look superficially like a mole. Occur in the elderly and in large quantities. They arrive at a freckles, mainly appearing on those areas that are exposed to solar radiation;
- Melasma, chloasma - large pigmented areas are usually formed in a young woman on the forehead, temples, cheeks. They are irregular in shape, they can coalesce into one big blur;
- Sunspots are the result of exposure to ultraviolet rays;
- White pigmented spots (vitiligo) - pinkish-white skin. There are, if in certain areas of the skin ceases production of melanin.
Effective treatment of pigmentation on the face and skin, you must first find out what led to the emergence of spots. The main reasons:
- Solar radiation, as a rule, is the main culprit formation of dark spots on the skin;
- Chronic diseases of internal organs - liver, kidney, thyroid gland;
- Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, especially vitamin C, and folic acid;
- The appearance of pigmented spots on the skin often occurs during pregnancy as a result of hormonal changes;
- Age-related changes, metabolic disorders;
- Stress, aggressive environmental factors;
- Hygienic and household products (perfumes, deodorants). It is not recommended to use cosmetics on the beach, as the sunlight on the skin leads to the formation of age spots.
It is also possible secondary skin pigmentation after diseases such as eczema, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, pyoderma.
Treatment of pigmentation and stain removal
First of all you should know that skin tumors are not only a cosmetic problem. It also has a kind of indicator and human health. If they appear suddenly and in large quantities, it is necessary not to apply to a beauty salon and a doctor. Before the treatment of pigmentation, you need a consultation therapist, gynecologist and endocrinologist. If there are diseases that could cause the appearance of age spots, their removal be carried out only under the supervision of a specialist.
Methods of treatment of skin pigmentation:
- Pharmacological methods for getting rid of dark spots is the use of creams and solutions, which include hydroquinone. This material is well known in dermatology as depigmenting agent. It prevents the formation of melanin pigment in the skin cells;
- Dermatological treatments are very effective in achieving results. They represent a set of tools - chemical peels, lightening procedures. Also effective cryotherapy or treatment with liquid nitrogen, which is applied directly to the seat of hyperpigmentation, causing destruction of the surface layers of the skin cells.
- Treatment of pigmentation laser considered the most optimal method of getting rid of dark spots. The procedure is almost painless, there is no damage to the deep layers of the skin, avoiding scars or scars. It is a modern method of exfoliation. Initially, the skin area treated stream of microscopic crystals under high pressure, after which the laser beam penetrates the skin and acupressure pigmented cells, destroying them. After treatment, pigmentation laser darkens the skin area first, but after a week, the treated surface is peeled, and the stain disappears;
- Phototherapy is an effect on cells with increased pigment content using pulses of light visible and infrared parts of the spectrum. This method allows to selectively remove the stain without damaging the healthy skin, as well as in the treatment of pigmentation laser;
- Cosmetics such as bleaching creams and masks. The composition of these agents typically include plant extracts rich in flavonoids, and other derivatives (celandine, lemon, bearberry, Glycyrrhiza) or kojic acid, zinc lactate.
And for the prevention and treatment of pigmentation in the skin protection is extremely important from the sun, the use of funds from the level of SPF-factor of not less than 25 units. Proper nutrition also helps to prevent the formation of age spots. Eating foods rich in vitamins C and B group, helps to normalize metabolism of melanin, the skin tone.
Treatment of pigmentation in the home
Folk remedies of treatment no less effectively help lighten unwanted spots on the skin. To make inconspicuous freckles skin can be cleaned with lemon juice, grapefruit, or applied to the face of watermelon flesh, leaving 5-10 minutes. Dry skin should be wiped with a pre-olive or corn oil and make a hot compress of chamomile or adding a little soda water.
For the treatment of pigmentation in the home suitable mask from starch and lemon juice. One tablespoon of starch should be diluted fresh juice to form a thick mass. Put it in a place where there are spots, and leave for 20 minutes. Well help lighten dairy products such as yogurt or yogurt and cucumber, birch sap, berries, red or black currant.
You can prepare an infusion of elderberry. To do this, inflorescences berries pour a glass of boiling water, tightly close the dishes and leave to cool. The resulting solution was filtered and diluted with a little fresh water. Cloth soaked in tincture of elderberry, superimposed on the spot.