History of hydrotherapy
Hydrotherapy - a set of cosmetic and medical procedures aimed at rehabilitation, preventive, aesthetic and therapeutic purpose. These include the external application of river, lake, water, or rainwater as douches, wraps, wiping hot and cold baths and showers. Currently gained wide popularity internal hydrotherapy, where clean drinking water serves as a means shlakovyvodyaschego, but recognition of orthodox medicine internal hydrotherapy has never received.
Hydrotherapy - is an ancient healing and rejuvenating treatment that goes back far into antiquity, in many beliefs and myths of the water was endowed with divine life-giving force.
First hydrotherapists was court physician Gaius Julius Caesar, Anthony Muse, cure prihvoravshego Roman Emperor a very unusual way - cold poultices.
However, the true distribution of hydrotherapy gained in the 18th century through the work of physiotherapists Sebastian Kneipp and Vincent Prisnittsa, arranged in the first hydropathic Greffenberge. After them, their work on the healing properties of water, the scientists published Winternitz Wilhelm, Alexander Nikitin, BM Grzhimailo SP Botkin.
Hydrotherapy or water therapy is part of physiotherapy.
Types of hydrotherapy
Hydrotherapy is different from other treatments for their simplicity, accessibility and straightforward.
Hydrotherapy is represented by such types of procedures, such as:
- Shower. The essence of hydrotherapy using shower consists in exposing the body of water jets at a certain temperature and a certain pressure. The physiological effect of the soul depends on the volume of feed per unit of time of water "hardness" of the jet, as well as its degree of deviation from the indifferent temperature (34-36 degrees Celsius). There are rain, dust, circular, Scottish, needle shower, power shower (in the form of a dense stream of water directed at the person under pressure), ascending shower, etc .;
- Simple bath and whirlpool bath (Jacuzzi). There are a total bath in which the water surface are the head and neck of the patient and the local bath, the essence of which is the impact (temperature, vibration) to a specific part of the body (legs, arms, pelvis);
- Hydrocolonotherapy. It is a swimming and gymnastics in the water;
- Thermal hydrotherapy. This includes hydrotherapy groundwater at 37-42 degrees Celsius;
- Balneotherapy. Treatment of mineral water.
- Pouring. It tempers and restorative procedures, the action of which is to short-term exposure to low temperature of the body;
- Saunas and steam rooms. The therapeutic effect is achieved by acting on the body of high temperature steam.
Depending on the temperature of water all water treatments are divided into:
- Cold (temperature below 20 degrees);
- Cool (21-33 degrees Celsius);
- Apathetic (34-36 degrees Celsius);
- The warm (37-39 degrees Celsius);
- Hot (40 degrees and higher).
The mechanism of action of hydrotherapy
The basis of hydrotherapy are mechanical, thermal and chemical impacts on the body with plain water.
During hydrotherapy irritation occurs disposed nerve endings in the skin, which leads to the appearance of the nerve impulse, centripetal paths arriving at the body in the head and spinal cord. Returns nerve impulse for centrifugal ways to conjugate with a specific portion of the spinal cord body. For example, cooling chest causes constriction of blood vessels of the lungs, and the warming of the lumbar - renal vasodilation.
The thermal effects on the increase metabolism, improve metabolism, stimulate blood circulation, promote secretion of the pancreas, stomach. Warm or hot water has a sedative and analgesic effect, reduces muscle tone, stimulates the activity of the endocrine system and the "triggers" immune processes.
Hydrotherapy cold water followed by vascular changes: in the first phase of narrowing occurs, in the second - extension, followed by an acceleration of blood flow. Under the influence of the cooled blood is excited responses of the body in the form of enhanced release of hormones - epinephrine and thyroxine. The action of hormones causes the splitting of nitrogen-free substances, causing a purifying and firming effect.
Is a part of hydrotherapy contrasting procedures, carrying out the direction of the blood flow deep into the body, then back to the skin, train processes of microcirculation, help to normalize the pressure, have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, stimulate metabolic processes.
Additional therapeutic effect shall hydrotherapy water with various ingredients: plant extracts, turpentine, medicines.
Indications for hydrotherapy
Hydrotherapy is used as healthy people for tempering, stress relief, fatigue, sleep disorders, and patients in the state for the purpose of pre-disease preventive effects on the body.
Indications for hydrotherapy are diseases such as:
- cardiac ischemia;
- Venous disease, peripheral arterial disease;
- Diseases of the musculoskeletal system;
- Disorders of the digestive tract;
- Chronic lung disease;
- Skin diseases;
- Menstrual irregularities;
- Increased swelling of the extremities;
- Insomnia, various neuroses and stresses.
Like any other kind of treatment, hydrotherapy should be administered therapist and conducted strictly under his supervision.
Contraindications to hydrotherapy
Despite the simplicity, hydrotherapy can be fraught with danger for health. Not recommended hydrotherapy for people suffering from:
- Tilt to the disruption of the coronary and cerebral circulation;
- Circulatory failure above 1-B stage;
- Chronic thrombophlebitis;
- Hypertension in Step 3-B;
- Inflammatory diseases in the acute stage;
- Severe angina.
Patients who have had a stroke, myocardial infarction, as well as diabetics, pregnant women and patients with atherosclerosis before the appointment of water treatments should consult with a specialist.