Skin color depends on many factors, chief of which is programmed at the genetic level. Racial differences determine the uniform color of the skin. However, when certain areas of the body found an unusual spot, their appearance due to the pigmentation of the skin or the destruction of the surface epithelium. Under normal conditions, skin pigmentation depends on the number of keratinocytes, which are located in the inner layer. These cells contain a coloring pigment - melanin. In addition, keratinocytes produce an important hormone that regulates the activity of T lymphocytes - cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity of the person. The appearance of age spots indirect evidence on the state of cellular immunity. Uniform distribution of melanin indicates individual to individual and depends on the following reasons: skin pigmentation of the whole body:
- Place of human habitation. Residents of the southern countries tend to have dark skin;
Manifestations of local skin pigmentation depends on the synthesis melanotropnogo average pituitary hormone. When its synthesis is increased in certain areas of the skin, often public, appear dark spots.
The appearance of age spots on the face depends on two factors:
- The amounts of keratinocytes in the face;
- Exchange amino acid tyrosine, which is converted into melanin.
The manifestations of skin pigmentation in the form of separate spots:
- Freckles, efelidy - solar blotch (Gr.). They appear under the influence of sunlight: the beginning of spring until late autumn. In those days, when the duration of sunny days are shorter, freckles disappear;
- Moles (nevi). Immutable and non-vanishing dark spots with clear boundaries. They have all the properties of normal skin to grow hair nevi, have sweat glands;
- Chloasma, translated from Greek means "green-yellow" spots. Accompany gynecological diseases often accompany pregnancy. Have a direct relationship with the work of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Is temporary skin pigmentation to fade after the treatment of the underlying disease, or at the end of pregnancy.
- Lentigo - convex dark brown skin. There may be single or multiple. They appear in childhood and old age. Youthful lentigo usually appears before the age of ten, and caused genetically. Senile lentigo spots indicate a thinning of the skin.
The color intensity in skin pigmentation also depends on the sunlight, but, unlike freckles, lentigo not become invisible.
Violation of skin pigmentation
Pigmentation of the skin depends on the content of melanin in keratinocytes. Quantitative changes seen in the direction of increasing or decreasing the pigment.
With low content of melanin pigmentation disorders develop due gipomelanozom. The disadvantage of the pigment occurs with a small amount of keratinocyte capable of specific cell content elements - melanosomes melanin which is synthesized. Hypopigmentation can be local or widespread:
- Albinism. It is characterized by a complete lack of melanin. Albinos have a white skin, devoid of any dark spots. The eyes of people with albinism, red, because the iris transparent - through her translucent vessels of the fundus;
- Vitiligo. The emergence of local spots and stripes, lacking color. The disease is caused by hormonal changes and massive death of keratinocytes and refers to violations of pigmentation of the skin, the causes of which are not clear to this day. Hair growing on the depigmented area, turning gray. One theory is considered to be the nerve disease vitiligo.
Gipermelanozy manifest appearance of spots of varying intensity. With an excess of melanin in the skin surface cells, it is colored in brown. If the pigment is localized in the deeper layers, there are blue-gray or blue spots. Such violations of skin pigmentation called tselurodermoy or false tattoo. Unlike melanosis dark blue may be subjected shaped development if its appearance is caused by the action of harmful substances or medicines.
Causes skin pigmentation
The appearance of melanin from tyrosine may be not only genetically determined, but provoked by other factors, among which are the following:
- Hormonal disorders;
- Liver disease, manifested dysfunction;
- Receiving drugs affecting melanin synthesis;
- Thinning of the epidermis, as a cause of skin pigmentation due to the fact that the cells containing melanin, simply "shine";
- Perverted pigment synthesis due to a violation at the level of the cell nucleus - DNA damage by harmful environmental factors.
Known mechanisms and causes skin pigmentation do not give a complete picture of the disease, which allows you to choose effective treatments. However, to develop a common tactic of medical intervention in various forms of metabolic melanin.
Treatment of skin pigmentation
Treatment involves a preparatory phase and therapeutic.
During the preparatory phase, which is at least two weeks, produced skin peeling procedure using lactic acid. The positive effect is considered to be a complete exfoliation of the epidermis.
The second stage of the pre-treatment of skin pigmentation is its hydration and nutrition with the help of creams with vitamin A and C.
Actually lightening of the skin involves the use of inhibitors of tyrosinase. They detain and stop the synthesis of melanin in the area of increased pigmentation.
The next and final stage of the treatment of skin pigmentation is the destruction of melanosomes using pulsed radiation. The laser effect on the pockets of hyperpigmentation is effectively before the fifth week of treatment.
Long course must be repeated several times to secure a positive effect. It should be remembered that the effect of sunlight nullifies the results of treatment.
In the treatment of melanoma, prone to malignancy, surgical techniques are used. Moles are removed within healthy tissue with subsequent courses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Treatment gipomelanozov futile. There are some results after application of the stem cells, but they have only a theoretical value. The effectiveness of these techniques to date no clinical confirmation. For the treatment of vitiligo cosmetic correction methods are used:
In some cases, a discoloration of the skin to normal levels of vitiligo patches. Methods of autologous transplantation of keratinocytes are the most promising. Cosmetic correction is carried out taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient's skin.