Hepatitis

 Symptoms of hepatitis

Statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that more than 30% of the adult population of the Earth is suffering from some kind of liver disease. In Russia, such diseases every year claim the lives of about 400 000 people. The number of deaths from hepatitis, cirrhosis, steatosis and is constantly growing.

In this article we will talk about viral hepatitis, because they pose the greatest danger to the future generations of our country. Viral hepatitis - is a collective name of acute and chronic liver disease. The causes of hepatitis - are different, which determines their wide distribution and variety of forms. Regardless of the etiology, the symptoms of hepatitis always indicate the development of inflammation in the human liver. For this reason, the disease is often popularly called "jaundice" - for the most characteristic symptom of hepatitis of all types.

Classification of hepatitis

Hepatitis A - the most common and least dangerous viral hepatitis. The incubation period of the infection is from 7 days to 2 months. Infection occurs through eating substandard food. In addition, acute hepatitis A is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person, and things dirty hands. In most cases, the infection result in spontaneous recovery, but sometimes patients prescribed a dropper, which reduces the intensity of toxic effects on the liver.

Hepatitis B - is transmitted through blood, during sexual intercourse, with injections of sterile syringes. This form is very dangerous because it causes severe liver damage and is accompanied by severe symptoms: fever, enlarged liver and spleen, nausea, vomiting, severe pain in the joints. Hepatitis B requires a comprehensive treatment in a hospital on the mandatory use of immune drugs, hormones, antibiotics, and hepatic.

Hepatitis C - one of the most severe forms of the disease, often leading to cirrhosis, liver cancer and, as a consequence, the death of the patient. The most likely route of infection - through the blood during transfusions, but also hepatitis C can be transmitted during sexual intercourse, and from the sick mother - fetus. The incidence in Russia and abroad is growing, so the diagnosis of hepatitis C treatment and prevention of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem, careful monitoring of blood donations, distribution of visual agitation among the population. The danger of this form is that hepatitis C is often combined with other forms of viral hepatitis, and in addition, there is currently no effective vaccine that reliably protect healthy people from infection.

Hepatitis D - has been discovered and studied in 1977. Later researchers have shown that viral hepatitis "delta" is a variant of hepatitis B, which appears as a result of the basic compound strain and a delta agent.

Hepatitis E - signs of infection are similar to the symptoms of hepatitis A, but in severe disease occurs defeat not only the liver but also the kidneys. Prediction of treatment almost always favorable. The exceptions are pregnant women in the third trimester, when the risk of losing a child is close to 100%. Prevention of hepatitis E is similar preventive measures conducted against hepatitis A.

Acute and chronic hepatitis

The acute form of the disease most typical of all viral hepatitis. Patients experienced: deterioration of health, expressed intoxication, abnormal liver function, jaundice, increase in the number of bilirubin and transaminase levels. With adequate and timely treatment of acute hepatitis ending in complete recovery of the patient.

If the disease lasts for more than 6 months, the patient is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis. This form is accompanied by severe symptoms (asthenovegetative disorders, enlarged liver and spleen, metabolic disorders) and often leads to cirrhosis, the development of malignant tumors. A person's life is threatened when chronic hepatitis, symptoms which indicate the defeat of vital organs, aggravated by improper treatment, reduced immunity, alcohol dependence.

Symptoms of hepatitis and the clinical picture of infection

One of the most characteristic symptoms of hepatitis - jaundice. It comes at a time when the bile produced by the liver, enters the human blood and spreads throughout the body, giving the skin a yellowish tint. Note also that some forms of the disease occur without jaundice, so the most reliable way to diagnose the virus is a laboratory analysis of hepatitis.

Common symptoms of hepatitis:

  • temperature rise;
  • skin discoloration;
  • headache;
  • aches in the joints;
  • malaise;
  • in some cases - the appearance of rashes on the skin;
  • decreased appetite.

The intensity of the symptoms of the infection depends on the shape. Hepatitis A is characterized by fast-flowing, so the symptoms of hepatitis pronounced and progress in just a few hours. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C develop gradually. In the initial stages, they may restrict the weakness and loss of appetite, and pain, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, and other symptoms appear only after a few days. Note also that after the appearance of jaundice is usually the patient's condition improves. The exception is hepatitis C, in which the process of necrosis of liver tissue often has a chronic character.

In some cases, patients develop a so-called fulminant acute hepatitis. This is an extremely severe form of the disease, in which there is a mass death of tissue and extremely rapid development of symptoms. If untreated, this acute hepatitis ends with the death of man.

When symptoms of chronic hepatitis are changing. The symptoms are not consistent, for which reason many people do not pay them enough attention. This is the wrong approach. To the doctor should be treated in all cases where there is reason to suspect chronic hepatitis. Usually it is accompanied by:

  • constant feeling of malaise and weakness, which increases towards the end of the day;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • joint and muscle pain;
  • abdominal pain;
  • dark urine;
  • pruritus;
  • weight loss;
  • bleeding.

The above symptoms are undoubtedly the basis for treatment at the clinic, where doctors must be analyzed for hepatitis, to determine the exact cause of the unpleasant events and assign adequate treatment.

Complications of hepatitis

And acute and chronic hepatitis can lead to very serious consequences. Among them are worth special mention:

  • inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract;
  • hepatic coma (ends in death in 90% of cases);
  • cirrhosis of the liver - occurs in 20% of patients with viral hepatitis. Most often it leads to cirrhosis hepatitis B and its derivatives form;
  • liver cancer;
  • dilation of blood vessels and the subsequent internal bleeding;
  • accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity - ascites.

The largest number of severe complications of hepatitis C gives in the chronic stage of development. The problem is compounded by the lack of effective treatments for this form, so if any adverse symptoms, the person should always consult a doctor. To neglect a visit to the clinic is not necessary, because it is possible that the prescribed treatment in a timely manner will save not only health, but also the patient's life.

Hepatitis A, B, C - Treatment and prognosis

 Interferon alpha is indispensable in the treatment of hepatitis b

Treatment of hepatitis A was based on a basic therapy, bed rest and a strict diet. Where indicated, patients assigned symptomatic and detoxification therapy (intravenously or orally). In the majority of cases of viral hepatitis A cured without any problems and it has no serious complications.

A similar situation is observed in the case of the B-form of the infection. With adequate treatment of hepatitis B ends in complete recovery of the patient in 80% of cases. It is important not to allow the transition to a chronic form of the disease, which is often accompanied by the development of cirrhosis. Patients received basic therapy, taking medication, improves metabolic processes, when indicated - antiviral therapy (recombinant interferon alpha). Hepatitis b requires long-term treatment. In some situations, there is a need in repeated courses of therapy.

Hepatitis C often becomes chronic and causes the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer every 7th patient. Accordingly, the diagnosis of hepatitis C treatment has two important goals:

  • reduce the intensity of inflammatory processes in the liver to reduce the risk of cirrhosis;
  • eliminate the virus from the body (fully or partially). The priority again is to work with the liver.

The main method of treatment involves the use of interferon alpha. This drug prevents the emergence of new infected cells, but has side effects (fever, weakness, loss of appetite), which pass through 1, 5-2 weeks after the start of the course. Note that interferon alpha does not guarantee the complete disposal of hepatitis C, however, it reduces the risk of developing cirrhosis and enhances the quality of life. To increase the positive effect of the drug is used in combination with ribavirin.

After the treatment the patient should be every month to donate blood for the early detection of signs of re-inflammation of the liver.

Prevention of hepatitis

For acute or chronic hepatitis B did not become a reality for you, you must follow some simple rules:

  • not to drink unboiled water;
  • always wash fruits and vegetables;
  • wash hands before eating;
  • not use personal hygiene together with others;
  • in any case to be tested regularly for early detection of hepatitis B infection;
  • refrain from piercing and tattoos;
  • be careful when you use syringes and needles (true for people who use drugs);
  • carefully choose a sexual partner;
  • time to be vaccinated.




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